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Achondroplasia

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Achondroplasia is a type of genetic disorder that is a common cause of dwarfism. People with this condition have short stature, usually reaching a full adult height of around 4’0″ (1.2 meters). Incidence and Prevalence This condition occurs at a frequency of about 1 in 25,000 to 1 in 40,000 births. Achondroplasia also occurs in all races with equal frequency in males and females. Clinical Features Clinical features of the disease: nonproportional dwarfism (short stature) shortening of the proximal limbs (termed rhizomelic shortening) short fingers and toes a large head with prominent forehead small mid-face with a flattened nasal bridge spinal kyphosis (convex curvature) or lordosis (concave curvature) varus (bowleg) or valgus (knock knee) deformities frequently have ear infections (due to Eustachian tube blockages), sleep apnea (which can be central or obstructive), and hydrocephalus Causes The disorder is a result of an autosomal dominant mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor gene 3 (FGFR3), which causes an abnormality of cartilage formation. FGFR3 normally has a negative regulatory effect on bone growth. In achondroplasia, the mutated form of the receptor is constitutively active and this leads to severely shortened bones. People with achondroplasia have one normal copy of the fibroblast growth…

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Parkinson’s Disease

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Parkinson’s disease (also known as Parkinson disease or PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer’s motor skills and speech. Parkinson’s disease belongs to a group of conditions called movement disorders. It is characterized by muscle rigidity, tremor, a slowing of physical movement (bradykinesia), and in extreme cases, a loss of physical movement (akinesia). The primary symptoms are the results of excessive muscle contraction, normally caused by the insufficient formation and action of dopamine, which is produced in the dopaminergic neurons of the brain. Secondary symptoms may include high level cognitive dysfunction and subtle language problems. PD is both chronic and progressive. PD is the most common cause of parkinsonism, a group of similar symptoms. PD is also called “primary parkinsonism” or “idiopathic PD” (“idiopathic” meaning of no known cause). While most forms of parkinsonism are idiopathic, there are some cases where the symptoms may result from toxicity, drugs, genetic mutation, head trauma, or other medical disorders. History Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease have been known and treated since ancient times. However, it was not formally recognized and its symptoms were not documented until 1817 in An Essay on the Shaking Palsy by the…

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Multiple Sclerosis (abbreviated MS, also known as disseminated sclerosis or encephalomyelitis disseminata) is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelination disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). MS can cause a variety of symptoms, including changes in sensation, visual problems, muscle weakness, depression, difficulties with coordination and speech, severe fatigue, cognitive impairment, problems with balance, overheating, and pain. MS will cause impaired mobility and disability in more severe cases. Multiple sclerosis affects neurons, the cells of the brain and spinal cord that carry information, create thought and perception, and allow the brain to control the body. Surrounding and protecting some of these neurons is a fatty layer known as the myelin sheath, which helps neurons carry electrical signals. MS causes gradual destruction of myelin (demyelination) and transection of neuron axons in patches throughout the brain and spinal cord. The name multiple sclerosis refers to the multiple scars (or scleroses) on the myelin sheaths. This scarring causes symptoms which vary widely depending upon which signals are interrupted. The predominant theory today is that MS results from attacks by an individual’s immune system on the nervous system and it is therefore usually categorized as an autoimmune disease. There is a minority view that MS…

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Infectious mononucleosis, (also known as the kissing disease, or Pfeiffer’s disease, in North America as mono, and more commonly known as glandular fever in other English-speaking countries), is a disease seen most commonly in adolescents and young adults, characterized in teenagers by fever, sore throat, muscle soreness, and fatigue. Mononucleosis typically produces a very mild illness in small children. White patches on the tonsils or in the back of the throat may also be seen, (resembling strep throat). Mononucleosis is usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which infects B cells (B-lymphocytes), producing a reactive lymphocytosis and atypical T cells (T-lymphocytes) known as Downey bodies. Mononucleosis is typically transmitted from asymptomatic individuals through blood or saliva (hence “the kissing disease”), or by sharing a drink, or sharing eating utensils. The disease is far less contagious than is commonly thought. In rare cases a person may have a high resistance to infection. The disease is so-named because the count of mononuclear leukocytes (white blood cells with a one-lobed nucleus) rises significantly. There are two main types of mononuclear leukocytes: monocytes and lymphocytes. They normally account for about 35% of all white blood cells. With infectious mononucleosis, this can rise to 50-70%….

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Migraine – Health Web

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Migraine is a neurological disorder. Usually migraine causes episodes of severe or moderate headache (which is often one-sided and pulsating) lasting between several hours to three days, accompanied by gastrointestinal upsets, such as nausea and vomiting, and a heightened sensitivity to bright lights (photophobia) and noise (phonophobia). Approximately one third of people who experience migraine get a preceding aura. The word migraine is French in origin and comes from the Greek hemicrania, as does the Old English term megrim. Literally, hemicrania means “half (the) head”. Migraine is widespread in the population. In the USA 18% of women and 6% of men report have had at least one migraine episode in the previous year wrongdiagnosis.com reports that 10% of people have been diagnosed with migraine and 5% have migraine but have not been diagnosed), with seriousness varying from a rare annoyance to a life-threatening and/or daily experience. Treatments are typically expensive. Periodic or unpredictable disability can cause impoverishment due to patients’ inability to work enough or to hold a job at all. Migraines’ secondary characteristics are inconsistent. Triggers precipitating a particular episode of migraine vary widely. The efficacy of the simplest treatment, applying warmth or coolness to the affected area of…

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eningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. It may develop due to a variety of causes, including infective agents, physical injury, cancer, or certain drugs. Meningitis is a serious condition owing to the proximity of the location to the brain and spinal cord. The potential for serious damage to motor control, thought processes, or even death warrants prompt medical attention. —————— Causes Most cases of meningitis are caused by microorganisms, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites, that spread into the blood and into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Non-infectious causes include cancers, systemic lupus erythematosus and certain drugs. Although the most common cause of meningitis is viral, bacterial meningitis — Meningococcal meningitis the second most frequent cause — can be serious and life-threatening. Anyone suspected of having meningitis should have prompt medical evaluation. ——————— Epidemiology Meningitis can affect anyone in any age group, from the newborn to the elderly. Age Group | Causes Neonates | Group B Streptococci, Escherichia Coli, Listeria monocytogenes Infants | Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae Children | Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae Adults | Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Mycobacteria, Cryptococci The African Meningitis Belt The…

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énière’s disease is a disorder of the inner ear that can affect hearing and balance. It is characterized by episodes of dizziness and tinnitus and progressive hearing loss, usually in one ear. It is caused by an increase in volume and pressure of the endolymph of the inner ear. It is named after the French physician Prosper Ménière, who first reported that vertigo was caused by inner ear disorders in an article published in 1861. Symptoms The symptoms of Ménière’s are variable; not all sufferers experience the same symptoms. However, so-called “classic Ménière’s” is considered to comprise the following four symptoms: Periodic episodes of rotary vertigo (the abnormal sensation of movement) or dizziness. Fluctuating, progressive, unilateral (in one ear) or bilateral (in both ears) hearing loss, often initially in the lower frequency ranges. Unilateral or bilateral tinnitus (the perception of noises, often ringing, roaring, or whooshing), sometimes variable. A sensation of fullness or pressure in one or both ears. Ménière’s often begins with one symptom, and gradually progresses. A diagnosis may be made in the absence of all four classic symptoms. Attacks of vertigo can be severe, incapacitating, and unpredictable. In some patients, attacks of vertigo can last for hours…

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Measles – Health Web

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Measles, also known as rubeola, is a disease caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus. Reports of measles go back to at least 600 B.C., however, the first scientific description of the disease and its distinction from smallpox is attributed to the Persian physician Ibn Razi (Rhazes) 860-932 who published a book entitled “Smallpox and Measles” (in Arabic: Kitab fi al-jadari wa-al-hasbah). In 1954, the virus causing the disease was isolated, and licensed vaccines to prevent the disease became available in 1963. Measles is spread through respiration (contact with fluids from an infected person’s nose and mouth, either directly or through aerosol transmission), and is highly contagious—90% of people without immunity sharing a house with an infected person will catch it. Airborne precautions should be taken for all suspected cases of measles. The incubation period usually lasts for 4–12 days (during which there are no symptoms). Infected people remain contagious from the appearance of the first symptoms until 3–5 days after the rash appears. German measles is an unrelated condition caused by the rubella virus. Symptoms The classical symptoms of measles include a fever for at least three days, and the three Cs—cough, coryza (runny nose)…

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Marburg Virus

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e Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg hemorrhagic fever. Both the disease and virus are related to Ebola and originate in the same part of Africa (Uganda and Eastern Congo). The zoonosis is of unknown origin, but some scientists believe it may be hosted by bats. The disease is spread through bodily fluids, including blood, excrement, saliva, and vomit. There is no cure or vaccine for this deadly and infectious virus. Victims suffer a high fever, diarrhea, vomiting, and severe bleeding from bodily orifices and usually die within a week. Fatality rates range from 25 to 100%. In the spring of 2005, the virus attracted widespread press attention for an outbreak in Angola. Beginning in October 2004 and continuing into 2005, the outbreak was the world’s worst epidemic of any kind of hemorrhagic fever. The Marburg Virus The viral structure is typical of filoviruses, with long threadlike particles which have a consistent diameter but vary greatly in length from an average of 800 nanometers up to 14,000 nm, with peak infectious activity at about 790 nm. Virions (viral particles) contain seven known structural proteins. While nearly identical to Ebola virus in structure, Marburg virus is antigenically distinct from Ebola virus —…

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Alopecia areata

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Alopecia areatica Classification and external resources Alopecia areata. ICD-10 L63. ICD-9 704.01 OMIM 104000 DiseasesDB 430 MedlinePlus 001450 eMedicine derm/14 MeSH D000506 Alopecia areata (AA) is a condition affecting humans, in which hair is lost from some or all areas of the body, usually from the scalp.[1][2] Because it causes bald spots on the scalp, especially in the first stages, it is sometimes called spot baldness. In 1%–2% of cases, the condition can spread to the entire scalp (Alopecia totalis) or to the entire epidermis (Alopecia universalis). Conditions resembling AA, and having a similar cause, occur also in other species.[3] Contents [hide] • 1 Classification • 2 Signs and symptoms • 3 Causes • 4 Treatment • 5 Prognosis • 6 Epidemiology • 7 See also • 8 References • 9 External links Classification The most common type of alopecia areata involves hair loss in one or more round spots on the scalp.[2][4] • Hair may also be lost more diffusely over the whole scalp, in which case the condition is called diffuse alopecia areata.[2] • Alopecia areata monolocularis describes baldness in only one spot. It may occur anywhere on the head. • Alopecia areata…

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Addison’s disease

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It has been suggested that Autoimmune adrenalitis be merged into this article or section. (Discuss) Addison’s disease Classification and external resources ICD-10 E27.1-E27.2 ICD-9 255.4 DiseasesDB 222 MedlinePlus 000378 eMedicine med/42 MeSH D000224 Addison’s disease (also chronic adrenal insufficiency, hypocortisolism, and hypocorticism) is a rare, chronic endocrine disorder wherein the adrenal glands produce insufficient steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids).[1]. Lifelong, continuous treatment with steroid replacement therapy is required, with regular follow-up treatment and monitoring for other health problems.[2] It is generally diagnosed via blood tests and medical imaging.[2] Treatment involves replacing the absent hormones (oral hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone). Addison’s disease is named after Dr. Thomas Addison, the British physician who first described the condition in On the Constitutional and Local Effects of Disease of the Suprarenal Capsules (1849).[3] The adjective “Addisonian” describes features of the condition, and patients suffering Addison’s disease.[2] While Addison’s six patients in 1855 all had adrenal tuberculosis,[4] the term “Addison’s disease” does not imply an underlying disease process. Contents [hide] • 1 Signs and symptoms o 1.1 Symptoms o 1.2 Clinical signs o 1.3 Addisonian crisis • 2 Causes o 2.1 Adrenal dysgenesis o 2.2 Impaired steroidogenesis o 2.3 Adrenal destruction • 3 Diagnosis o…

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WHAT IS AGORAPHOBIA

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The term agoraphobia has been widely misunderstood. Its literal definition suggests a fear of “open spaces”. However, this is an incomplete and misleading view. Agoraphobics are not necessarily afraid of open spaces. Rather, they are afraid of having panicky feelings, wherever. these fearful feelings may occur. For many, they happen at home, in houses of worship, or in crowded supermarkets, places that are certainly not “open”. In fact, agoraphobia is a condition which develops when a person begins to avoid spaces or situations associated with anxiety. Typical “phobic situations” might include driving, shopping, crowded places, traveling, standing in line, being alone, meetings and social gatherings. Agoraphobia arises; from an internal anxiety condition that has become so intense that the suffering individual fears going anywhere or doing anything where these feelings of panic have repeatedly occurred before. Once the panic attacks have started, these episodes become the ongoing stress, even when other more obvious pressures have diminished. This sets up a “feedback condition” which generally leads to increased numbers of panic attacks and, for some people, an increase in the situations or events which can produce panicky feelings. Others experience fearful feelings continuously, more a feeling of overall. discomfort, rather than…

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Some people with sickle cell disease continue to have blood transfusions to prevent and treat some of the serious health problems caused by their disease. Sickle cell disease is a common and inherited blood disorder that affects 1 in 500 African Americans and 1 in 1000 Hispanic Americans. Although it’s more common in these ethnic groups, sickle cell disease can occur in people of all races. In sickle cell disease, some red blood cells become rigid and crescent (sickle) shaped. These odd-shaped cells have a difficult time moving through blood vessels. They can cause blockages and prevent healthy blood cells from taking oxygen to tissues throughout the body. When the tissue does not get enough oxygen, pain results. How Transfusions Help Sickle Cell Disease Blood transfusions give people more of the healthy red blood cells, which makes them feel better. People with sickle cell disease may receive blood transfusions to relieve pain or symptoms of the disease. They may also receive blood transfusions: • To prevent strokes • To prevent problems with their lungs • Before certain surgeries • To prevent complications during pregnancy 10 Transfusions Put You at Risk Although transfusions can help improve the health of people with…

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Iron deficiency anemia

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URL of this page: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000584.htm Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues. There are many types of anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is a decrease in the number of red cells in the blood caused by too little iron. See also: Iron deficiency anemia – children Causes Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia. About 20% of women, 50% of pregnant women, and 3% of men do not have enough iron in their body. Iron is a key part of hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in the blood. Your body normally gets iron through diet and by recycling iron from old red blood cells. Without iron, the blood cannot carry oxygen effectively. Oxygen is needed for every cell in the body to function normally. The causes of iron deficiency are: • Blood loss • Poor absorption of iron by the body • Too little iron in the diet It can also be related to lead poisoning in children. Anemia develops slowly after the normal iron stores in the body and bone marrow have run out. In general, women have smaller stores of…

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Definition Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are allergic skin rashes (or Rhus dermatitis) caused by the plants of the same name. All three plants secrete a potent, irritating oil known as urushiol that causes blistering and intense itching once it penetrates the skin. Description The allergic rash of poison ivy, oak, and sumac is characterized by red, weeping blisters and severe itching. The rash usually appears within one to two days of initial contact with the plant oil, although it may take longer to appear in areas where the skin is thicker, and lasts from one to three weeks (longer in severe cases). It starts as itchy, inflamed red patches or streaks, and as the oil penetrates into the skin, blisters and small papules form. Poison plant rash cannot be spread from person to person by contact with the rash itself or fluid from the blisters, and scratching does not spread the rash (although it can cause scarring and potential infection). Only urushiol oil can cause the rash. Transmission Urushiol oil or resin is found in the leaves, roots, and woody parts (i.e., vines and stems) of the poison ivy, oak, and sumac plants. It is a clear substance that…

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Food Allergy

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Patients and Consumers Your Food Allergy Guidelines Questions Answered With guidance from leading expert members, the AAAAI has developed an FAQ sheet and online Food Allergy Library that contains a collection of patient-friendly links and resources. Egg Allergy/Intolerance and the Flu Vaccine Egg allergy versus egg intolerance – it makes a difference when getting the flu vaccine. Search your Symptoms on our Virtual AllergistTM Find out more about your allergy and asthma symptoms with The Virtual Allergist, our interactive symptom checker. Professionals and Members Educating Patients About the Food Allergy Guidelines With guidance from leading expert members, the AAAAI has developed a patient-friendly FAQ sheet. The FAQ is available for you to print and personalize with your contact information. There is also an online Food Allergy Library that contains a collection of patient-friendly links and resources. Administering Influenza Vaccine to Egg Allergic Recipients The 2010 influenza vaccine has incorporated the H1N1 strains, and thus a single TIV is being offered this season. Read more in a special report prepared by AAAAI members Matthew J. Greenhawt, MD, MBA and James T. Li, MD, PhD. Member Benefit – Faculty of 1000 Maximize your member benefits and stay current with new research and…

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Published under Health Articles Monday, September 13th, 2010 When we feel stress and are anxious over a new job, an old relationship, or even just the everyday conundrums we all face from time to time, it can be beneficial to the nerves to take some vitamins minerals and added supplements that have proven benefit for relief of stress and anxiety. By adding them to our daily diet we can be assured of eliminating those frayed nerves and feeling calm and self assured. While the stress relieving vitamins are not necessarily miracle workers you will be amazed at how effective they can be. Commonly people worry to the point of becoming physically ill when faced with financial or personal problems beyond control. While popping a pill or two is the most popular way to cope, they can provide only a short term means of relief and many stress reducing sedatives can even become habit forming. Magnesium and other natural ingredients relieve anxiety Magnesium is one of the most effective natural ingredients to calm the nerves while relieving stress. Magnesium is a mineral that cannot be manufactured in the human body yet is extremely valuable to our kidneys, brain, heart, and nervous…

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Latex allergy

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may be seen as the latest ‘issue’; but it isn’t going to just go away. Introduction It has been estimated that up to 30% of the population has atopic allergy and 43% of NHS staff suffer from some sort of skin irritation. Within these groups a latex sensitivity of 10% has been calculated – which is 3% or 1.5 million of the British population who are at risk.(Turner, Occupational Health 1997; 49:2, 57-60) (Bandolier I) The AIDS epidemic of the 1980s prompted a massive increase in the use of latex gloves for healthcare workers who are increasingly at risk due to the increased use of ‘economic’ latex gloves and enhanced sensitivity from other latex products also encountered in daily work. (Packham) (Bandolier I) Sometimes sensitivity is encountered from the chemical accelerators used in the manufacturing process. It should be noted that Glove powder is just a carrier of latex proteins not the primary allergen. Likewise the strength of detergent used in hand washing ‘soap’ is a critical factor – especially if the frequency is high and no emollient or skin aftercare treatments are provided; broken skin may lead to further sensitisation via the ingress of allergens. (Charous) This phenomenon also…

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celiac disease

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Celiac disease is a digestive disease that damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. People who have celiac disease cannot tolerate gluten, a protein in wheat, rye, and barley. Gluten is found mainly in foods but may also be found in everyday products such as medicines, vitamins, and lip balms. The small intestine is shaded above. When people with celiac disease eat foods or use products containing gluten, their immune system responds by damaging or destroying villi—the tiny, fingerlike protrusions lining the small intestine. Villi normally allow nutrients from food to be absorbed through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream. Without healthy villi, a person becomes malnourished, no matter how much food one eats. Villi on the lining of the small intestine help absorb nutrients. Celiac disease is both a disease of malabsorption—meaning nutrients are not absorbed properly—and an abnormal immune reaction to gluten. Celiac disease is also known as celiac sprue, nontropical sprue, and gluten-sensitive enteropathy. Celiac disease is genetic, meaning it runs in families. Sometimes the disease is triggered—or becomes active for the first time—after surgery, pregnancy, childbirth, viral infection, or severe emotional stress. What are the symptoms of celiac…

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About Pinkeye

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Conjunctivitis, commonly known as pinkeye, is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, the clear membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids. While pinkeye can be alarming because it may make the eyes extremely red and can spread rapidly, it’s a fairly common condition and usually causes no long-term eye or vision damage. But if your child shows symptoms of pinkeye, it’s important to see a doctor. Some kinds of pinkeye go away on their own, but other types require treatment. Causes Pinkeye can be caused by many of the bacteria and viruses responsible for colds and other infections, — including ear infections, sinus infections, and sore throats — and by the same types of bacteria that cause the sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) chlamydia and gonorrhea. Pinkeye also can be caused by allergies. These cases tend to happen more frequently among kids who also have other allergic conditions, such as hay fever. Triggers of allergic conjunctivitis include grass, ragweed pollen, animal dander, and dust mites. Sometimes a substance in the environment can irritate the eyes and cause pinkeye; for example, chemicals (such as chlorine and soaps) and air pollutants (such as smoke and…

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Asthma

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Asthma (disambiguation). Asthma Classification and external resources Peak flow meters are used to measure one’s peak expiratory flow rate ICD-10 J45. ICD-9 493 OMIM 600807 DiseasesDB 1006 MedlinePlus 000141 eMedicine article/806890 article/796274 article/800119 article/137501 article/296301 article/1000997 article/353436 article/88849 MeSH allergy&field=entry#TreeC08.127.108 C08.127.108 Asthma (from the Greek άσθμα, ásthma, “panting”) is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm.[1] Symptoms include wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.[2] Treatment of acute symptoms is usually with an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist (such as salbutamol).[3] Symptoms can be prevented by avoiding triggers, such as allergens[4] and irritants, and by inhaling corticosteroids.[5] Leukotriene antagonists are less effective than corticosteroids and thus less preferred.[6] The prevalence of asthma has increased significantly since the 1970s. As of 2009, 300 million people were affected worldwide.[7] In 2009 asthma caused 250,000 deaths globally.[7] Despite this, with proper control of asthma with step down therapy, prognosis is generally good. Contents [hide] • 1 Classification o 1.1 Brittle asthma o 1.2 Asthma attack o 1.3 Status asthmaticus o 1.4 Exercise induced o 1.5 Occupational • 2…

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Anaphylaxis

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Anaphylactic shock) Jump to: navigation, search Anaphylaxis Classification and external resources A rash on the back of a person with anaphylaxis. ICD-10 T78.2 DiseasesDB 29153 eMedicine med/128 MeSH D000707 Anaphylaxis is an acute multi-system severe type I hypersensitivity reaction. The term comes from the Greek words ἀνά ana (against) and φύλαξις phylaxis (protection).[1] Due in part to the variety of definitions, between 1% and 15% of the population of the United States can be considered “at risk” for having an anaphylactic reaction if they are exposed to one or more allergens. Of those people who actually experience anaphylaxis, up to 1% may die as a result.[2] Anaphylaxis results in approximately 1,500 deaths per year in the U.S.[3][4] In England, mortality rates for anaphylaxis have been reported as up to 0.05 per 100,000 population, or around 10-20 a year.[5] Anaphylactic reactions requiring hospital treatment appear to be increasing, with authorities in England reporting a threefold increase between 1994 and 2004.[6] Based on the pathophysiology, anaphylaxis can be divided into “true anaphylaxis” and “pseudo-anaphylaxis” or “anaphylactoid reaction.” The symptoms, treatment, and risk of death are the same; however, “true” anaphylaxis is caused by degranulation of…

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Allergic rhinitis

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Hay fever) Jump to: navigation, search For the play, see Hay Fever. Allergic rhinitis Pollen grains from a variety of common plants can cause hay fever. ICD-10 J30. ICD-9 477 OMIM 607154 DiseasesDB 31140 MedlinePlus 000813 eMedicine ent/194 med/104, ped/2560 MeSH D012221 Allergic rhinitis, pollenosis or hay fever is an allergic inflammation of the nasal airways. It occurs when an allergen such as pollen or dust is inhaled by an individual with a sensitized immune system, and triggers antibody production. The specific antibody is immunoglobulin E (IgE) which binds to mast cells and basophils containing histamine. IgE bound to mast cells are stimulated by pollen and dust, causing the release of inflammatory mediators such as histamine (and other chemicals).[1] This causes itching, swelling, and mucus production. Symptoms vary in severity between individuals. Very sensitive individuals can experience hives or other rashes. Particulate matter in polluted air and chemicals such as chlorine and detergents, which can normally be tolerated, can greatly aggravate the condition. Contents [hide] • 1 Classification • 2 Signs and symptoms • 3 Cause • 4 Management o 4.1 Dietary o 4.2 Antihistamines o 4.3 Steroids o 4.4 Decongestants o 4.5…

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Reye’s Syndrome

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Definition Reye’s syndrome is a disorder that primarily affects the liver and brain. It attacks the nervous system very quickly and can cause death Description Reye’s syndrome primarily affects children and teenagers. In almost all cases, it follows a viral illness, such as a cold (see common cold entry), the flu (see influenza entry), or chickenpox (see chickenpox entry). The disorder can affect any organ in the body, but its most serious effects occur in the brain and the liver. As the disorder develops, it attacks the body’s nervous system. It produces symptoms such as listlessness, confusion, seizures, and coma. In extreme cases, it can lead to death. Reye’s syndrome is a rare disorder. It was first discovered in the early 1970s. The number of cases of Reye’s syndrome rose slowly until 1980. In that year, 555 cases of the disorder were diagnosed. Researchers had learned at that point that children who are given aspirin are at risk for Reye’s syndrome. Doctors began to warn parents against the use of aspirin with sick children. As a result of those warnings, the number of cases of Reye’s syndrome began to fall. By the late 1990s the condition was very rare in…

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What is hepatitis C? Hepatitis (HEP-ah-TY-tis) makes your liver swell and stops it from working right. You need a healthy liver. The liver does many things to keep you alive. The liver fights infections and stops bleeding. It removes drugs and other poisons from your blood. The liver also stores energy for when you need it. What causes hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is caused by a virus. A virus is a germ that causes sickness. (For example, the flu is caused by a virus.) People can pass viruses to each other. The virus that causes hepatitis C is called the hepatitis C virus. How could I get hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is spread by contact with an infected person’s blood. You could get hepatitis C (la Qdar allah) by : # sharing drug needles # getting pricked with a needle that has infected blood on it (hospital workers can get hepatitis C this way) # having sex with an infected person, especially if you or your partner has other sexually transmitted diseases # being born to a mother with hepatitis C. # Using blood tools as in case of detection of BGL [blood glucose level] MAY transmit Hepatits C virus…

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الحمرة او الـ Erysipelas – تنطق بضم حرف الحاء – هي احد الامراض المنتشرة والتي تسببها البكتريا     اشهر انواع البكتريا المسببة لهذا المرض هي بكتريا من النوع Streptococcus pyogenes حيث تصيب الجلد بالعدوي كما هو واضح في الصورة السابقة .. وتكون الصورة الظاهرة من هذا المرض هو وجود جزء ملتهب له لون احمر مميز علي الجلد يشعر المريض بالالم عند لمسه … ويصاحب ذلك ارتفاع في درجه الحرارة   يصيب هذا النوع من البكتريا اماكن معينة من الجلد اشهرها الوجه – وبالاخص منطقة الخدود – وكذلك القدمين والذراعين حيث تكون الانسجة الدهنية fat tissues الموجوده تحت الجلد هي انسب الاماكن التي تنمو وتتكاثر فيها البكتريا     تصل البكتريا الي الجلد عن طريق الجروح الملوثة .. العمليات الجراحيه .. عن طريق الـ minor trauma او وجود ulcer علي الجلد حيث تجد البكتريا الفرصه للنمو والتكاثر … ويكثر هذا المرض في الاشخاص الذين لديهم مناعه ضعيفة وفي مرضي السكر وفي حالات الـ fungal infections   Diagnosis :gara7: يتم تشخيص هذه العدوي البكتيرية عن الطرق الشكل واللون المميزين للعدوي وطبيعي جدا ان تحليل الـ ASO ونسبة كرات الدم البيضاء تكون مرتفعه Treatment يتم علاج الـ Erysipelas عن طريق استخدام penicillinase resistant antibiotics مثل الـ salbactam مع الـ ampicillin والمعروف تجاريا…

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بسم اللله الرحمن الرحيم تعريف الجلوكوما  المياه الزرقاء.. عبارة عن ارتفاع فى ضغط العين أكثر من المعدل الطبيعى يؤدى إذا لم يعالج إلى تدمير العصب البصرى، وينتج عنه فقد البصر. ما هو ضغط العين الطبيعى؟ العين مثل الكرة لابد لها من ضغط داخلها لتحتفظ الكرة بشكلها، وتقوم بوظيفتها، مثل إطار السيارة لابد أن يكون داخله “ضغط” لكى يحتفظ الإطار بشكله ويقوم بوظيفته، فإذا قل الضغط داخل الكرة أو داخل إطار السيارة فستفقد شكلها، ولا تقوم بالغرض التى صنعت من أجله، كذلك إذا زاد الضغط داخل إطار السيارة أكثر مما يحتمل أو تحتمل، فقد تنفجر الكرة أو ينفجر إطار السيارة، كذلك كرة أو مقلة العين، إذا قل الضغط بها فقد يحدث بها مضاعفات قد تؤثر على النظر، وكذلك إذا زاد الضغط داخلها، فقد يؤدى ذلك فى النهاية إلى فقد النظر. كيف يمكن أن أعرف أن ضغط عينى طبيعى أو غير طبيعى؟ عادة لا يشعر الإنسان بضغط عينيه أى لا يستطيع أن يقدر إذا ما كان ضغط عينه عالياً أو منخفضاً.. ولكن طبيب العيون هو الذى يستطيع قياس ذلك بأجهزة خاصة. إذن هل يلزم كل شخص أن يذهب لطبيب العيون لقياس ضغط العين؟ للإجابة عن هذا السؤال يلزم التأكيد على النقاط الآتية: – من الضرورى قياس ضغط العين عند أى استشارة طبية…

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Anemia

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  Anemia (U.S. spelling) or anaemia means not having enough red blood cells or hemoglobin in the blood. Contents 1 Types or causes of anemia 1.1 Microcytic anemia 1.2 Normocytic anemia 1.3 Macrocytic anemia 1.4 Dimorphic anemia  Types or causes of anemia  Microcytic anemia Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia overall Hemoglobinopathies — much rarer Sickle-cell disease (once called sickle-cell anemia) Thalassemia  Normocytic anemia Acute blood loss Anemia of chronic disease Aplastic anemia (bone marrow failure)  Macrocytic anemia Megaloblastic anemia due to not having enough of either vitamin B12 or folic acid (or both) Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune problem with the parietal cells of the stomach Alcoholism Methotrexate, zidovudine, and other drugs that stop DNA replication. This is the most common cause in nonalcoholic patients.  Dimorphic anemia Dimorphic anemia means two types of anemia at the same time. For example, macrocytic hypochromic, due to hookworm infestation leading to not enough of both iron and vitamin B12 or folic acid [1] or following a blood transfusion.

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Alzheimer’s Disease is a -disease that slowly destroys a person’s memory until the person dies -from forgetting how to perform basic functions like swallowing or breathing. -Alzheimer’s Disease is not a normal part of aging. -There is no known cause for Alzheimer’s disease – and even though we are not able to cure it there are medications that can be taken to relieve the patient of some of the symptoms. – It is named after Alois Alzheimer, who discovered the disease in 1906. There are, however, – certain lifestyle habits that can be adopted to delay the onset of the disease.

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Alopecia

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  A man losing his hair; this is a normal process that happens to some men Mohamed ElBaradei has lost some of his hair Alopecia is a condition which is found in humans, as well as in some animals. When it occurs, it will mean that those affected will permanently lose some (or all) of their hair. Since some of the factors are linked to the genes on the chromosome, the condition can be seen more often with men, than with women. People who have the condition will become bald Alopecia areata is the name for a condition in which a person suddenly loses his or her hair. It mostly happens to men, who become bald.

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Albinism

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Albino African Penguin An albino baby girl in an orphanage in Malawi. Albinism is a condition some people and animals are born with. This condition is caused by a lack of pigment (color) in their hair, eyes, and skin. A person or animal with albinism is sometimes called an albino, but many people prefer to be called a “person with albinism”. People with albinism usually have white or light blonde hair and very fair skin. Their eyes are blue, or rarely pink-ish. People with albinism in reality do have some problems including bad vision and getting sunburn easily. All of these problems are because people with alibinism have little or no pigments in their eyes, skin and hair.[1] Vision problems in albinism include nystagmus (irregular fast movements of the eyes), strabismus (where the eyes fail to balance) and refractory errors (like being near-sighted or far-sighted). Albino animals are easily attacked by predators because they cannot hide themselves like the non-albino members of their species.[needs proof] Genetics of albinism  Albinism is a hereditary condition. It is usually inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern; it means, both parents should carry the albinism gene to have a child with albinism.[1]  Famous people with albinism …

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AIDS

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Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a syndrome caused by a virus called HIV. Acquired means that people get the disease from others who already have it. Immune or Immuno- talks about the immune system. The immune system is the part of the body that fights infectious disease. Deficiency means not enough. An immuno-deficiency is a problem where the immune system is damaged and cannot fight disease well. Syndrome is a disease that makes many different problems in the body. Contents 1 How many people have AIDS 2 Where HIV started 3 How HIV can harm the body 4 HIV and AIDS 4.1 AIDS defining illnesses 4.2 CD4 T-cell count 5 Treatment of HIV and AIDS 6 Poverty and HIV 7 Ways to stop AIDS 7.1 Education 7.2 Safe sex and needle exchange 7.3 HIV vaccine 8 Different ideas 9 Other websites 9.1 Different ideas 10 References How many people have AIDS Number of people in the world with HIV from 1979-1995 About 3,000,000 people died because of AIDS in 2004. About 500,000 of these people were children. About 40,000,000 people in the world had HIV in 2004. Most of the people who have HIV live…

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