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شلل الوجه النصفي

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شلل الوجه النصفي

شلل العصب الوجهي هو الفقدان الجزئي أو الكلي للقدرة على تحريك جزء من الوجه. ينشأ ذلك عن إصابة العصب الوجهي المسؤول عن تحريك عضلات الوجه. ثمة نوعان من شلل العصب الوجهي: شلل العصب الوجهي المحيطي وشلل العصب الوجهي المركزي ويتم التمييز بينهما بناءً على موقع الإصابة. وينشأ شلل العصب الوجهي المركزي عن إصابات في الدماغ مثل الحوادث التي تصيب أوعية الدماغ أو الرضات أو الأورام الدماغية. أما شلل العصب الوجهي المحيطي فينشأ، من بين أسباب أخرى، عن التهاب أو مرض التهابي مثل التصلب اللويحي أو رضات أو عن ضغط على العصب يسببه وجود ورم. في بعض الحالات، لا يُكتشف أي سبب للشلل: وتُعرف هذه الحالة بشلل الوجه النصفي التي تشفى بشكل كامل بعد بضعة أسابيع. الأعراض أعراض شلل العصب الوجهي فهي كالتالي: توقف أو تراجع القدرة على تحريك الجهة المصابة من الوجه. إصابة نصف الوجه كاملاً بصورة نسبية (ليست هذه الحال بالنسبة إلى شلل العصب الوجهي المركزي حيث يصيب الشلل النصف الأدنى من الوجه بشكل خاص). تهدل ركن الفم. العجز عن نفخ الخدين أو الصفير. نقص كمية اللعاب والدموع المنتَجة. صعوبة في الكلام. صعوبة في المضغ. تظهر هذه الأعراض سريعاً وتبلغ أوجها في غضون ثوانٍ أو دقائق ما يولد توتراً كبيراً لدى المصاب. التشخيص يسهل تشخيص شلل الوجه النصفي بناءً…

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البُهاق

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البُهاق

البهاق مرض جلدي يتّسم بظهور مناطق فقدت لونها أو بيضاء اللون يزداد حجمها مع الوقت، بشكل عام، يبدأ المرض بالظهور قبل سن العشرين. زوال اللون هذا ينتج عن اختفاء الخلايا الملانية أي الخلايا المسؤولة عن اصطباغ البشرة والجلد. في مراحل متقدمة، يمكن أن تصاب الأظافر والوبر والشعر، لا تزال أسباب المرض غير معروفة تحديداً وإنما يمكن تقديم بعض النظريات كالقول إن أساس المرض مناعي ذاتي، وجيني أو أن الأسباب بيئية. يصيب البهاق الوجه والشفتين واليدين والقدمين بشكل خاص.  الأعراض والأعراض التي تظهر هي التالية: زوال لون البشرة موضعياً، محدود بمنطقة صغيرة. زوال اللون المعمم: نتحدث عن بهاق مألوف. ابيضاض الشعر قبل الأوان، شعر الرأس، الحاجبين، اللحية وغيرها. التشخيص تشخيص البهاق سهل ويتم أمام ظهور علامات زوال لون البشرة السريرية. استخدام مصباح وود في غرفة مظلمة يسمح بدراسة أدق للجلد، وإن كانت الحالة بهاق، تكون البشرة بيضاء وخالية من الخضاب. وفي المقابل، يسمح هذا المصباح بكشف مناطق أخرى مصابة بالبهاق ولا يزال لونها طبيعياً تحت الضوء الطبيعي المعتاد. العلاج علاجات البهاق تصحح آثار المرض وإنما لا تشفيه، وبحسب تطوره، يمكن أن يعاد تلوين بعض المناطق واصطباغها. عندما لا يكون التناقض قوياً بين المنطقة الفاقدة اللون ولون البشرة، يمكن اللجوء إلى وضع مساحيق التجميل، والتعرّض لأشعة الشمس وإعادة التصبّغ الكيميائية أو الليزر…

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كل ما تريدون معرفته عن التوحد

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كل ما تريدون معرفته عن التوحد

التوحد هو مصطلح شامل لمجموعة من الاضطرابات التي تؤثر على النمو العصبي والحركي للإنسان. يتم تشخيص التوحد في مرحلة الطفولة، ويجب أن تكون الأعراض موجودة قبل أن يبلغ عمر المريض ثلاثة سنوات حتى يتم التشخيص بدقة. وهناك مجموعة واسعة من الأعراض يمكن أن تشير إلى وجود مرض التوحد، بما في ذلك التنمية الاجتماعية الغير طبيعية، الصعوبة في التواصل، وغيرها من الأعراض. يركز العلاج على الحد من العجز الاجتماعي والمعرفي للطفل لأكبر قدر ممكن من خلال برامج التعليم والتنشئة الاجتماعية الخاصة. في بعض الحالات، يتم وصف بعض الأدوية التي تهدف للحد من الأعراض. أعراض التوحد 1-الانفصال عن الآخرين، فالطفل المتوحد يبدو معظم الوقت بعيد أو منفصل عن الأشخاص حوله، كما أنه لا يلتقط الإشارات الاجتماعية بكفاءة. 2-عدم القدرة على التنبؤ بتصرفات الآخرين أو فهمهما مما يخلق صعوبة في التواصل والتعاطف مع الآخرين. 3-عدم المبالاة بالتفاعل مع من حوله: الأطفال الذين يعانون من التوحد في كثير من الأحيان لا يستجيبون عندما يتم استدعاء اسمهم كما لا يبدون اهتمام في الانخراط في الألعاب الاجتماعية أو تقليد الآخرين. 4-إظهار السلوك العدواني بدنياً لآبائهم، والأشقاء، أو الأطفال الآخرين وقد يبدو عند الطفل المتوحد عدم القدرة على السيطرة على عواطفه والاستجابات الجسدية في المواقف الغريبة عليه. 5-تأخر التنمية اللغوية: قبل 3 سنوات من العمر، والغالبية العظمى…

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تعرف على داء الفيل (تشوه الاوعية اللمفاوية)

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تعرف على داء الفيل (تشوه الاوعية اللمفاوية)

داء الفيل  او تورم اطراف الجسم (الاطراف العليا او السفلى) بشكل كلي او جزئي او اي جزء من الجسم، و يسمى بالعامية داء الفيل (و هذه التسمية تمثل احد انواع المرض) و هو عبارة عن تجمع السوائل اللمفاوية في و تحت الجلد و عدم رجوعها الى مجرى الدم لعدة اسباب. أسباب داء الفيل – ان تشوه الاوعية اللمفاوية هو لاسباب عديدة اهمها: 1- عدم وجود الاوعية الليمفاوية (خلقي). 2- قلة وجود الاوعية الليمفاوية (خلقي). 3- صغر الاوعية الليمفاوية (خلقي). 4- انسداد الاوعية الليمفاوية. 5- تلف الاوعية الليمفاوية بسبب الجراحة او الاشعاع او الاشعة و خاصة بعد استئصال احد الاورام الخبيثة كالثدي مثلا او لاسباب اخرى مثل الحوادث و الحروق و غيرها. الاعراض و العلامات المصاحبة للمرض 1- تورم شديد في الطرف او العضو. 2- صعوبة ارتداء الملابس و خاصة في الطرف المتورم. 3- قلة المرونة و الحركة او صعوبتها في الطرف المتورم. 4- الشعور بثقل الطرف المتورم. 5- تثخن الجلد في الحالات المزمنة او تورم الطرف لفترة طويلة. 6- تشوهات الاطراف المصابة. التشخيص – يعتمد التشخيص على فحص المريض بصورة جيدة و اخذ تاريخ المرض او حادثة او عملية سابقة ثم اجراء الفحوصات و الاشعة الملونة للاوعية الليمفاوية؛ لدراسة حجم و توزيع الاوعية الليمفاوية في الطرف المريض. الوقاية 1- يكون الغذاء قليل…

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لدغة العقرب ولدغة الأفعى وإسعافاتهما الأولية

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لدغة العقرب ولدغة الأفعى وإسعافاتهما الأولية

(لدغة العقرب) على الرغم من وجود ما ﻻ يقل عن ألفي نوع من العقارب، إلا أن نحو 25-40 نوعا فقط هي التي تعد سامة بما يكفي لإحداث الأضرار الخطرة أو القاتلة. (أعراض لدغة العقرب) بشكل عام، فإن لدغة العقرب عادة ما تسبب الشعور بعدم الراحة، غير أن ذلك الشعور ينخفض ببطء مع مرور الوقت. وعادة ما تتراوح  أعراض اللدغة ما بين معتدلة إلى شديدة كما يلي: ● قد يشعر المصاب بالألم والوخز والحرق والخدران في موقع اللدغة. ● قد يكون رد الفعل في موقع اللدغة خفيفا. أما في حالات نادرة، فقد يواجه المصاب رد فعل خطير يتطور إلى أعراض شديدة في جميع أنحاء الجسم. وتشمل الأعراض الشديدة خدرا على نطاق واسع وصعوبة في البلع وانتفاخ اللسان وعدم وضوح الرؤية والإصابة بنوبات صرع وسيلان اللعاب وصعوبة في التنفس. ويذكر أن هذه الأعراض تعد حالة طبية طارئة. فهي قد تفضي إلى الوفاة. ( الإسعافات الأولية للدغة العقرب) معظم لدغات العقارب التي تصيب البالغين تحتاج إلى علاج داعم وبسيط كما يلي: ● غسل اللدغة بالماء والصابون وإزالة جميع المجوهرات وإرخاء الألبسة عن المنطقة الملدوغة كونها ستتورم. فعلى سبيل المثال، فإن الخاتم يعيق الإصبع الملدوغ عن التورم. ● وضع كمادات باردة بشكل متقطع، وذلك بوضعها لمدة عشر دقائق وإزالتها لمدة عشر دقائق أخرى، وهكذا….

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الحروق؛ انواعها و طرق العلاج

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الحروق؛ انواعها و طرق العلاج

الحروق: هو التضرر الناتج في الجلد و الانسجة الاخرى نتيجة التعرض لعوامل خارجية كالحروق: 1- الفيزيائية؛ مثل التعرض المستمر لاشعة الشمس, الماء الحار, النار, الصعق الكهربائي و غيرها. 2- الكيميائية؛ مثل التعرض للمواد الحامضية, القاعدية الشديدة و غيرها. الإسعافات الأولية أ- ابعاد المريض عن العوامل المسببة للحروق. ب- التنفس الاصطناعي و الاكسجين في حالات احتراق المجاري التنفسية. ج- نزع الملابس للمناطق المحروقة. د- غسل الحرق بماء الحنفية (معتدل البرودة) للحروق محدودة المساحة. ه- تثبيت الكسور ان وجدت و ايقاف النزيف ان وجد. و- نقل المصاب للمستشفى. علاج الحروق أ- الحروق البسيطة هي الحروق التي تصيب مساحة صغيرة في غير الاعضاء المهمة. 1- غسل الحرق يوميا بالصابون (طبيعي) و الماء. 2- وضع المرهم المناسب و حسب ارشادات الطبيب. 3- اخذ لقاح الكزاز. 4- تناول المضادات الحيوية وحسب تعليمات الطبيب 5- عدم التعرض للشمس مباشرة او اي مصدر حراري. ب- الحروق الخطرة هي التي تصيب الاعضاء المهمة مثل الوجه و الاعضاء التناسلية و المجاري التنفسية و الرئة, و مساحات واسعة من الجسم و خاصة عند مرضى القلب, السكري, و كبار السن و الاطفال. 1- ادخال المريض الى المستشفى. 2- تعويض السوئل المفقودة. 3- اعطاء مسكن الالام. 4- غسل يومي للحروق. 5- استعمال المراهم الخاصة للحروق. 6- متابعة و معالجة المضاعفات التي قد تصاحب الحالة. 7-…

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العلاقة بين الصداع و الأسنان

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العلاقة بين الصداع و الأسنان

يعاني الانسان أحياناَ من الصداع بسبب متاعب الأسنان … كيف يحدث ذلك؟ هناك أسباب عديدة للصداع منها ما يرتبط بالأسنان و الأنسجة المحيطة بها. وهناك عدة أمراض أو مسببات تؤدي إلى مضاعفات يكون الصداع أحد اعراضها ابرزها: تسوس الأسنان: وعادة يبدأ بإصابة الطبقة الخارجية للسن أوالضرس وهي طبقة الميناء، وبعد ذلك يهاجم الطبقة الثانية وهى طبقة العاج حتى يصل فى النهاية الى مهاجمة لب السن(العصب). وقبل هذه المرحلة بعدة أشهر يعانى الإنسان من نوبات صداع مزمن ويومي دون أن يدرك سببه ولذلك يجب على الإنسان زيارة الطبيب الاخصائي بصفة دورية فى فترات متقاربة لا تتعدى ستة أشهر حتى يتسنى للطبيب الكشف المبكر عن إصابات تسوس الأسنان وعلاجها قبل أن تدمر أجزاء كبيرة من طبقات السن ويصعب بعد ذلك علاجها . أمراض اللثة المختلفة:  ومنها التهابات اللثة وتضخمها الناتج عن وجود الترسبات الجيرية التى تتجمع فيها الكائنات البكتيرية وفضلات الأطعمة التى تتخمر مسببة أحماضا تساعد على سرعة نخر وتسوس الأسنان، كما أنها تؤدي إلى التهاب الانسجة الرخوة والصلبة المحيطة بها(العظم). وبالتالي فإن تلك التغيرات المرضية تؤدي بطريقة مباشرة أو غير مباشرة الى الصداع.  الأسنان التالفة والجذور المتبقية والتى يؤدي إهمال علاجها فى الوقت المناسب إلى خراجات في اللثة وعظم الفك . إنحشار ضرس العقل بعظم الفك:  وذلك نتيجة صغر حجم الفك السفلي…

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اعتلال الأعصاب بين الحقيقة والوهم

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اعتلال الأعصاب بين الحقيقة والوهم

يحدث الاعتلال العصبي عندما يؤدي تلف الأعصاب الطرفية الى إعاقة وظيفة الجهاز العصبي الطرفي  و الذي يحمل معلومات من الجهاز العصبي المركزى ، أو من الدماغ و النخاع الشوكي، إلى بقية أنحاء الجسم. – هناك ثلاثة أنواع رئيسية من الأعصاب: أ- الأعصاب الحسية: التي تنقل مختلف الاحاسيس إلى المخ، و التي تشمل الإحساس بدرجة الحرارة و اللمس و الألم. ب- الأعصاب الحركية: تعمل على إرسال إشارات من الدماغ إلى العضلات؛ لتتحكم في الانقباض و الانبساط العضلي. ج- الأعصاب اللاإرادية: تختص بوظائف مثل معدل ضربات القلب و التنفس و الهضم. و بناءً على ما سبق؛ فتلف الخلايا العصبية يؤدي الى اختلال التواصل بين الجهاز العصبي و باقي الجسم؛ حيث يمكن أن تشمل الأعراض الخدر، أو الألم أو اضطرابات التوازن. اذا ظهرت الأعراض فجأة، فإنه يسمى الاعتلال العصبي الحاد، بينما الأعراض التي تبدأ ببطء و تتزايد بمرور الوقت يطلق عليها الاعتلال العصبي المزمن، و للوصول للتشخيص الصحيح؛ يتم استعراض التاريخ الطبي و الفحص السريري و قد تشمل الاختبارات التشخيصية اختبارات الدم، و اختبارات الأعصاب، و التصوير الطبي. أعراض الاعتلال العصبي – يمكن أن تكون الأعراض غامضة في البداية؛ مما يجعل الوصول للسبب الأولي أكثر صعوبة، و تتنوع الأعراض بحسب نوع العصب التالف و قد تشمل: أ- أعراض الاعتلال العصبي الحسي  خدر، وخز، شعور بالحرق خاصة في اليدين…

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تورم القدمين أثناء الحمل

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تورم القدمين أثناء الحمل

مشكلة انتفاخ أو تورم القدمين عند الحوامل شائعة بمقدار (70 إلى 75% ) من كل الحوامل، إذ يتمركز عادة هذا التورم في أسفل القدمين ويزيد لبعض السيدات في مقدمة البطن وعند أصابع اليدين يظهر التورم في بعض حالاته عند رسغ القدم ويشمل غالبا القدمين معا ويزداد بزيادة أيام وأسابيع الحمل وزيادة وزن الام الحامل, أي تكون زيادته في الأسابيع الأخيرة قبل الولادة أشدها ولكن سرعان ما يتلاشى هذا التورم خلال(48 إلى 72) ساعة بعد الولادة، وعادة تنتهي المشكلة عندما يبتعد المولود عن رحم أمه، وهذا التورم لا يميز بين كبار أو صغار السن من الحوامل والسبب وراء هذا التورم للقدمين في فترات الحمل(أل9 شهور) هو أن المرأة تحفظ في جسدها كمية هائلة من السوائل، إضافة إلى أن الازدياد في حجم الرحم وكبر نمو الجنين وتكون أعضائه وازدياد كمية السائل المحيط بالجنين والذي يسمى السائل الامونيوسي. والذي يقترب في الحالات الطبيعية من(1 إلى 2 ) كغم أي ما يعادل( 2 لتر من السوائل ) ليسمح بدفء الجنين ويلائم حركته ويقيه من الصدمات ويحافظ عليه من تقلصات الرحم وخاصة في الأسابيع الأخيرة من فترة حمل الأم والذي يؤدي إلى ضغط على أوردة الأطراف السفلية وهذا يقلل أو يعيق رجوع الدم إلى المركز( القلب) وبالتالي تاركا وراءه فرصة مهيأة لتجمع السوائل في الكاحلين ومنها…

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من أهم الأخطاء الشائعة عند نصح مريض الانزلاق الغضروفى ..

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من أهم الأخطاء الشائعة عند نصح مريض الانزلاق الغضروفى ..

يخطئ كثير من الأطباء و الصيادلة عند تقديم النصيحة لمريض الانزلاق الغضروفى , عندما يشيرون عليهم بالنوم , أو التمدد على الخشب أو على أرضية الغرفة , بحجة الرغبة فى تقوية عضلات الظهر !! .. فى حين أن العلم يقول أن العمود الفقرى نفسه به انحناء واضح (كما بالصورة التوضيحية) , و هذا الانحناء يلزمه أن يستلقى المريض على مرتبة من الإسفنج الطرى , تأخذ شكل هذا الانحناء و تساعده على الارتياح و ليس التوتر و التشنج .. فنصيحة إلى كل من يتعاملون مع مريض الانزلاق الغضروفى : انصحوا مرضاكم بالنوم على مرتبة مريحة , و الابتعاد عن النوم على المراتب القطنية القديمة و غير المريحة .. و إن كان تغيير المرتبة القطنية صعبا و مكلفا , فما عليك إلا أن تشترى طبقة مناسبة من الإسفنج و تضعها على السرير قبل نومك .. المهم , ألا تنام على سطح مستو غير مريح للظهر .. انشر الأمر قدر استطاعتك , و حارب المعلومة الخاطئة , بالمعلومة الصحيحة .. و ساهم فى نشر الوعى الصحى بين جميع أفراد المجتمع .. بقلم د. أحمد الجويلى https://www.facebook.com/ahmed.elgewaily

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Video:Skin Cancer Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma
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كيف تشرح لمريض صيدليتك النظام الغذائي لهشاشة العظام؟

داء هشاشة العظام هو من أهم الأمراض الصامتة التي تصيب كبار السن خصوصاً النساء بعد سن اليأس. ويشكل بناء الثروة العظمية في سن النمو والمراهقة اللبنة الأساسية للوقاية من هذا المرض الذي كثيراً ما يلقي بظلاله خلسة على المصابين به معرضاً إياهم لجملة من الإختلاطات أشهرها الكسور العفوية التي تحصل أحياناً لمجرد العطس أو السعال. صحيح أن للوراثة دوراً ما في تشجيع الإصابة بداء هشاشة العظام، ولكن هناك عوامل أخرى من بينها التغذية، فتزويد الجسم بالكلس والفيتامين د على مدار حياة الإنسان يمثل الركيزة الجوهرية لبناء عظام قوية تستطيع الصمود أمام عاديات الأيام. وإلى جانب الكلس والفيتامين د، هناك عوامل غذائية أخرى لها تأثيرها على صعيد الحماية من داء هشاشة العظام، منها: – معدن البورون، فقد أفادت التحريات الميدانية أن الأشخاص الذين يملكون مستوى منخفضاً من هذا المعدن في الدم هم أكثر تعرضاً لخطر الإصابة بهشاشة العظام، والسبب يرجع إلى أن المعدن المذكور يقوم بدور فاعل في تعزيز مستويات هرمون الاستروجين الذي يحول دون هروب الكالسيوم من الجسم. وإلى جانب ذلك، كشفت دراسة للمركز الزراعي لأبحاث الغذاء البشري في الهند أن النساء اللواتي يعتمدن نظاماً غذائياً فقيراً بمعدن البورون هم أكثر ميلاً لخسارة الكالسيوم، والمعروف ان هذا المعدن يساهم بقوة في بناء الثروة المعدنية للعظام وفي إعطاء هذه الأخيرة القوة…

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Malaria

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Malaria Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. It infects between 300 and 500 million people every year and causes between one and three million deaths annually, mostly among young children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria is not just a disease commonly associated with poverty, but is also a cause of poverty and a major hindrance to economic development. Malaria is one of the most common infectious diseases and an enormous public-health problem. The disease is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. The most serious forms of the disease are caused by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, but other related species (Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae, and sometimes Plasmodium knowlesi) can also infect humans. This group of human-pathogenic Plasmodium species are usually referred to as malaria parasites. Malaria parasites are transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes. The parasites multiply within red blood cells, causing symptoms that include symptoms of anemia (light headedness, shortness of breath, tachycardia etc.), as well as other general symptoms such as fever, chills, flu-like illness, and in severe cases, coma and death. Malaria transmission can be reduced by preventing mosquito bites with mosquito nets and insect repellents, or by mosquito…

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Lung Cancer

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Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the malignant transformation and expansion of lung tissue, and is the most lethal of all cancers worldwide, responsible for up to 3 million deaths annually. Although lung cancer was previously an illness that predominantly affected males, the incidence in women has been increasing in the last few decades, which has been attributed to the rising ratio of female to male smokers. Currently, lung cancer is the leading causing of cancer death in women, overshadowing breast cancer, ovarian cancer and uterine cancers combined. However, it is of note that there are certain types of lung cancers that appear in otherwise healthy patients who has never smoked. Current research indicates that the factor with the greatest impact on risk of lung cancer is long-term exposure to inhaled carcinogens. The most common means of such exposure is tobacco smoke. Treatment and prognosis depend upon the histological type of cancer, the stage (degree of spread), and the patient’s performance status. Treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. ——————————————————————————– Signs and Symptoms Symptoms that suggest lung cancer include: dyspnea (shortness of breath) hemoptysis (coughing up blood) chronic cough or change in regular coughing pattern wheezing chest pain or pain in the…

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Hypertension

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Hypertension Hypertension, commonly referred to as “high blood pressure”, is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. While it is formally called arterial hypertension, the word “hypertension” without a qualifier usually refers to arterial hypertension. Hypertension gives the highest risk of heart attack or stroke than any other disease. Persistent hypertension is one of the risk factors for strokes, heart attacks, heart failure and arterial aneurysm, and is a leading cause of chronic renal failure. Hypertension can be classified as either essential or secondary. Essential hypertension is the term used when no specific medical cause can be found to explain a patient’s condition. Secondary hypertension means that the high blood pressure is a result of (i.e. secondary to) another condition, such as kidney disease or certain tumors. Recently, the JNC 7 (The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure) has defined blood pressure 120/80 mmHg to 139/89 mmHg as “prehypertension.” Prehypertension is not a disease category; rather, it is a designation chosen to identify individuals at high risk of developing hypertension. The Mayo Clinic website indicates that your blood pressure is “normal if it’s below 120/80” but…

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Hepatitis C

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Hepatitis C Hepatitis C is a blood-borne, infectious, viral disease that is caused by a hepatotropic virus called Hepatitis C virus (HCV). The infection can cause liver inflammation that is often asymptomatic, but ensuing chronic hepatitis can result later in cirrhosis and liver cancer. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is spread by blood-to-blood contact with an infected person’s blood. Many people with HCV infection have no symptoms and are unaware of the need to seek treatment. An estimated 150-200 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C. It is the leading cause of liver transplant in the United States. The hepatitis C virus is one of six known hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, E, G. ——————————————————————————– History In the mid 1970s, Harvey J. Alter, Chief of the Infectious Disease Section in the Department of Transfusion Medicine at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and his research team demonstrated that most post-transfusion hepatitis cases were not due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Despite this discovery, international research effort to identify the virus, initially called non-A, non-B hepatitis (NANBH), failed for the next decade. In 1987, Michael Houghton, Qui-Lim Choo, and George Kuo at Chiron Corporation utilized molecular cloning to…

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Hepatitis B

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Hepatitis B Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a member of the Hepadnavirus family and one of several unrelated viral species which cause viral hepatitis. It was originally known as “serum hepatitis” and has caused current epidemics in parts of Asia and Africa. Hepatitis B is recognized as endemic in China and various other parts of Asia. The proportion of the world’s population currently infected with the virus is 3 to 6%, but up to a third have been exposed. Symptoms of the acute illness caused by the virus include liver inflammation, vomiting, jaundice, and rarely, death. Chronic hepatitis B may cause liver cirrhosis which may then lead to liver cancer. The hepatitis B virus is the second most prevalent cause of cancer in humans after Tobacco smoke. Structure Virions consist of an outer lipid envelope and an icosahedra nucleocapsid core, the latter being composed of both protein and DNA. The outer envelope contains embedded proteins which are involved in viral binding of, and release into, susceptible cells. Virion shape is generally spherical with a diameter of 40 – 48 nanometers (nm) but pleomorphic forms exist, including filamentous and spherical bodies…

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Hepatitis A

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Hepatitis A is an enterovirus transmitted by the orofecal route, such as contaminated food. It causes an acute form of hepatitis (inflammation of the liver), does not have a chronic stage, and will not cause any permanent damage to the liver. The patient’s immune system makes antibodies against Hepatitis A that confer immunity against future infection. A vaccine is available that will prevent infection from hepatitis A for life. Features Hepatitis A is a disease affecting the liver, and caused by the Hepatitis A virus (abbreviated HAV). Only 3 out of 4 people with hepatitis A have symptoms. Those symptoms may include: Jaundice which first shows up first as yellow eyes Dark urine Nausea Fever Fatigue Loss of appetite Stomach ache Vomiting Diagnosis The diagnosis is made by the detection of antibodies directed at the virus by the person infected (Serum IgM anti-HAV). It is the gold standard for the detection of infection with Hepatitis A. Treatment There is no specific treatment for Hepatitis A. Sufferers are advised to rest, avoid fatty foods and alcohol (these may be poorly tolerated for some additional months during the recovery phase and cause minor relapses), eat a well-balanced diet, and stay hydrated. Approximately…

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Hepatitis

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Hepatitis Hepatitis is a gastroenterological disease, featuring inflammation of the liver. The clinical signs and prognosis, as well as the therapy, depend on the cause. Signs and Symptoms Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver characterized by malaise, joint aches, abdominal pain, vomiting 2-3 times per day for the first 5 days, defecation, loss of appetite, dark urine, fever, hepatomegaly (enlarged liver) and jaundice (icterus, yellowing of the eyes and skin). Some chronic forms of hepatitis show very few of these signs and are only present when the longstanding inflammation has led to the replacement of liver cells by connective tissue; this disease process is referred to as cirrhosis of the liver. Certain liver function tests can also indicate hepatitis. Types of Hepatitis Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C ——————————————————————————– Hepatitis E Hepatitis E produces symptoms similar to hepatitis A, although it can take a fulminant course in some patients, particularly pregnant women; it is more prevalent in the Indian subcontinent. ——————————————————————————– Hepatitis G Another type of hepatitis, hepatitis G, has been identified, and is probably spread by blood and sexual contact. There is, however, doubt about whether it causes hepatitis, or is just associated with hepatitis, as it does…

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Heart Disease

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Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart. The most common heart diseases are: Coronary heart disease – a disease of the heart itself caused by the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium. Ischaemic heart disease – another disease of the heart itself, characterized by reduced blood supply to the organ. Cardiovascular disease – a sub-umbrella term for a number of diseases that that affect the heart itself and/or the blood vessel system, especially the veins and arteries leading to and from the heart. Research on disease dimorphism suggests that women who suffer with cardiovascular disease usually suffer from forms that affect the blood vessels while men usually suffer from forms that affect the heart muscle itself. Known or associated causes of cardiovascular disease include diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperhomocysteinemia and hypercholesterolemia. Pulmonary heart disease – a failure of the right side of the heart. Hereditary heart disease – heart disease caused by unavoidable genetic factors. Hypertensive heart disease – heart disease caused by high blood pressure, especially localised high blood pressure. Inflammatory heart disease – heart disease that involves inflammation of the heart muscle…

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Escherichia Coli – Health Web Escherichia coli, is one of many species of bacteria living in the lower intestines of mammals, known as gut flora. When located in the large intestine, it actually assists with waste processing, vitamin K production, and food absorption. Discovered in 1885 by Theodor Escherich, a German pediatrician and bacteriologist, E. coli are abundant: the number of individual E. coli bacteria in the feces that a human defecates in one day averages between 100 billion and 10 trillion. However, the bacteria are not confined to this environment, and specimens have also been located, for example, on the edge of hot springs. The E. coli strain O157:H7 is one of hundreds of strains of the bacterium that causes illness in humans. As with all Gram-negative organisms, E. coli are unable to sporulate. Thus, treatments which kill all active bacteria, such as pasteurization or simple boiling, are effective for their eradication, without requiring the more rigorous sterilization which also deactivates spores. As a result of their adaptation to mammalian intestines, E. coli grow best in vivo or at the higher temperatures characteristic of such an environment, rather than the cooler temperatures found in soil and other environments. Role…

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Ebola

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Ebola Ebola is the common term for a group of viruses belonging to genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, which cause Ebola hemorrhagic fever. The disease can be deadly and encompasses a range of symptoms including vomiting, diarrhea, changes in skin color, general body pain, internal and external bleeding, and fever. Mortality rates are generally high, ranging from 50% – 100%, with the cause of death usually due to hypovolemic shock or Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. The virus is named after the Ebola River in the African nation-state of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire), near the site of the first outbreaks. The Democratic Republic of Congo has been the site of four recent outbreaks, including one in May 2005. Ebola is believed to be a zoonotic virus, although despite considerable effort by the World Health Organization, no animal reservoir capable of sustaining the virus between outbreaks has been identified. One possible candidate reservoir is the fruit bat. Another is the dog. Because Ebola is lethal and since no approved vaccine or treatment is available, Ebola is classified as a Biosafety Level 4 agent, as well as a Category A Bioterrorism agent and a select agent by the CDC. The…

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Diphtheria

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Diphtheria is an upper respiratory tract illness characterized by sore throat, low-grade fever, and an adherent membrane (apseudo-membrane) on the tonsil(s), pharynx, and/or nose. A milder form of diphtheria can be limited to the skin. It is caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, a facultatively anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium. Diphtheria is a highly contagious disease spread by direct physical contact or breathing the aerosolized secretions of infected individuals. Once quite common, diphtheria has largely been eradicated in developed nations through wide-spread vaccination. In the United States for instance, between 1980 and 2004 there have been 57 reported cases of diptheria as the DPT (Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus) vaccine is given to all school children. Boosters of the vaccine are recommended for adults since the benefits of the vaccine decrease with age; they are particularly recommended for those traveling to areas where the disease has not been eradicated. History Diphtheria was named in 1826 by French physician Pierre Bretonneau. The name alludes to the leathery, sheath-like membrane that grows on the tonsils, throat, and in the nose. The pronunciation was originally considered incorrect, but has become the most common way of saying the word, and is accepted as a correct form. While many writers today use the…

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Diaper Rash

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Diaper rash (US) or nappy rash (UK), is a generic term applied to skin rashes in the diaper area that are caused by a various skin disorders. Generic rash or irritant diaper dermatitis (IDD) is characterized by joined patches of erythema and scaling mainly seen on the convex surfaces, with the skin folds spared. Diaper dermatitis with secondary bacterial or fungal involvement tends to spread to concave surfaces (i.e. skin folds), as well as convex surfaces, and often exhibits a central red, beefy erythema with satellite pustules around the border (Hockenberry, 2003). Differential Diagnosis Other rashes that often occur in the diaper area include Seborrheic dermatitis and Atopic dermatitis. Both Seborrheic and Atopic dermatitis require individualized treatment and are not the subject of this article. Seborrheic dermatitis, typified by oily, thick yellowish scales, is most commonly seen on the scalp (cradle cap) but can also appear in the inguinal folds. Atopic dermatitis, or eczema, is associated with allergic reaction, often hereditary. This class of rashes may appear anywhere on the body and is characterized by intense itchiness. Causes Irritant diaper dermatitis develops when skin is exposed to prolonged wetness, increased skin pH caused by urine and feces, and resulting breakdown…

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Diabetes Mellitus

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Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia (high glucose blood sugar), among other signs. The World Health Organization recognizes three main forms of diabetes: type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes (or type 3, occurring during pregnancy), although these share signs and symptoms but have different causes and population distributions. They are not a single disease or condition. Type 1 is generally due to autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing cells – pancreatic beta cells – while type 2 is characterized by tissue wide insulin resistance and varies widely. Gestational diabetes is due to a poorly understood interaction between fetal needs and maternal metabolic controls. Type 2 sometimes progresses to loss of beta cell function as well. Since the first use of insulin (1921) Types 1 and 2 have been incurable, but treatable chronic conditions; gestational diabetes typically resolves with delivery. Aside from acute glucose levels abnormalities, the main risks to health are the characteristic long-term complications. These include cardiovascular disease (doubled risk), chronic renal failure (the main cause of dialysis in developed world adults), retinal damage (which can lead to blindness and is the most significant cause of adult blindness in the non-elderly in the developed…

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dermatophyte is a parasitic fungus that infects the skin. The term embraces the imperfect fungi of the genera Epidermophyton, Microsporum and Trichophyton. Dermatophytes (name based on the Greek for ‘skin plants’) are a common label for a group of three types of fungus that commonly causes skin disease in animals and humans. These anamorphic (asexual or imperfect) genera are: Microsporum, Epidermophyton and Trichophyton. There are about 40 species in these three genera. Species capable of reproducing sexually belong in the teleomorphic genus, Arthroderma, of the Ascomycota. (See Teleomorph, anamorph and holomorph for more information on this type of fungal life cycle). Dermatophytes cause infections of the skin, hair and nails due to their ability to obtain nutrients from keratinized material. The organisms colonize the keratin tissues and inflammation is caused by host response to metabolic by-products. They are usually restricted to the nonliving cornified layer of the epidermis because of their inability to penetrate viable tissue of an immunocompetent host. Invasion does elicit a host response ranging from mild to severe. Acid proteinases, elastase, keratinases, and other proteinases reportedly act as virulence factors. The development of cell-mediated immunity correlated with delayed hypersensitivity and an inflammatory response is associated with clinical…

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Autism

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Autism Autism is classified as a neurodevelopment disorder that manifests in delays of “social interaction, language as used in social communication, or symbolic or imaginative play,” with “onset prior to age 3 years,” according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The ICD-10 also requires symptoms to “manifest before the age of three years.” Autism is often not physiologically obvious, in that outward appearance may not indicate a disorder, and diagnosis typically comes from a complete physical and neurological evaluation. There have been large increases in diagnosed autism, for reasons that are heavily debated by researchers in psychology and related fields within the scientific community. Some believe this increase is largely due to changed diagnostic criteria and/or societal factors, while others think the reason is environmental. The United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders to be between one out of every 500 to one out of every 166 births. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) states the “best conservative estimate” as 1 in 1000. Although the specific causes of autism are unknown, there is a large database of links between autism and genetic loci that span every chromosome. Further, observations…

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Athlete’s Foot

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Athlete’s foot or tinea pedis is a fungal infection of the skin of the foot, usually between the toes, caused by parasitic fungi. Causes The body normally hosts a variety of saprotrophic microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi. Some of these are useful to the body. Pathogenic or disease causing organisms or the overgrowth of saprotrophic ones can multiply rapidly and cause infection. Athlete’s foot is a layman’s description of a skin fungal infection. Fungal infections of the skin are called dermatophytosis. Dermatophytes may be spread from other humans (anthropophilic), animals (zoophilic) or may come from the soil (geophilic). Anthropophillic dermatophytes are restricted to human hosts and produce a mild, chronic inflammation. Zoophilic organisms are found primarily in animals and cause marked inflammatory reactions in humans who have contact with infected cats, dogs, cattle, horses, birds, or other animals. Geophilic species are usually recovered from the soil but occasionally infect humans and animals. They cause a marked inflammatory reaction, which limits the spread of the infection and may lead to a spontaneous cure but may also leave scars. Infections or infestations occur when dermatophytes grow and multiply in the skin. Growth Environment Growth of the athlete’s foot fungus is promoted by…

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To an extent, we all develop a degree of degeneration in the vertebrae and discs as we become older. As the ‘discs’ degenerate, over many years they become thinner. Sometimes the adjacent vertebrae develop small, rough areas of bone on their edges. The nearby muscles, ligaments, and nerves may become irritated by these degenerative changes which can cause troublesome symptoms. What is Cervical Spine ? The cervical spine is made up of small circular bones (vertebrae) stacked on top of each other. Between each vertebrae is an intervertebral disc which acts like a shock absorber and allows flexibility of the spine. Muscles and ligaments run between, and are attached to, the vertebrae. Nerves from the spinal cord pass between the vertebrae going to the shoulder, neck, arm, and upper chest. Neck pain is one of the most common problems that one encounters in day to day life. It is probably as common as common cold. Cervical spondylosis may be caused by one or more of several complaints. A very common mistake is to perceive the cause of illness as a singular factor. Treating the patient for a single factor like a spur seen on X-ray or a slipped disc in…

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Asthma

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  Asthma is a chronic disease of the respiratory system in which the airway occasionally constricts, becomes inflamed, and is lined with excessive amounts of mucus, often in response to one or more triggers. These acute episodes may be triggered by such things as exposure to an environmental stimulant (or allergen), cold air, exercise or exertion, or emotional stress. In children, the most common triggers are viral illnesses such as those that cause the common cold. This airway narrowing causes symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing, which respond to bronchodilators. Between episodes, most patients feel fine. The disorder is a chronic or recurring inflammatory condition in which the airway develops increased responsiveness to various stimuli, characterized by bronchial hyper-responsiveness, inflammation, increased mucus production, and intermittent airway obstruction. The symptoms of asthma, which can range from mild to life threatening, can usually be controlled with a combination of drugs and environmental changes. Public attention in the developed world has recently focused on asthma because of its rapidly increasing prevalence, affecting up to one in four urban children. History The word asthma is derived from the Greek aazein, meaning “sharp breath.” The word first appears in Homer’s…

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Achondroplasia

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Achondroplasia is a type of genetic disorder that is a common cause of dwarfism. People with this condition have short stature, usually reaching a full adult height of around 4’0″ (1.2 meters). Incidence and Prevalence This condition occurs at a frequency of about 1 in 25,000 to 1 in 40,000 births. Achondroplasia also occurs in all races with equal frequency in males and females. Clinical Features Clinical features of the disease: nonproportional dwarfism (short stature) shortening of the proximal limbs (termed rhizomelic shortening) short fingers and toes a large head with prominent forehead small mid-face with a flattened nasal bridge spinal kyphosis (convex curvature) or lordosis (concave curvature) varus (bowleg) or valgus (knock knee) deformities frequently have ear infections (due to Eustachian tube blockages), sleep apnea (which can be central or obstructive), and hydrocephalus Causes The disorder is a result of an autosomal dominant mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor gene 3 (FGFR3), which causes an abnormality of cartilage formation. FGFR3 normally has a negative regulatory effect on bone growth. In achondroplasia, the mutated form of the receptor is constitutively active and this leads to severely shortened bones. People with achondroplasia have one normal copy of the fibroblast growth…

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Parkinson’s Disease

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Parkinson’s disease (also known as Parkinson disease or PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer’s motor skills and speech. Parkinson’s disease belongs to a group of conditions called movement disorders. It is characterized by muscle rigidity, tremor, a slowing of physical movement (bradykinesia), and in extreme cases, a loss of physical movement (akinesia). The primary symptoms are the results of excessive muscle contraction, normally caused by the insufficient formation and action of dopamine, which is produced in the dopaminergic neurons of the brain. Secondary symptoms may include high level cognitive dysfunction and subtle language problems. PD is both chronic and progressive. PD is the most common cause of parkinsonism, a group of similar symptoms. PD is also called “primary parkinsonism” or “idiopathic PD” (“idiopathic” meaning of no known cause). While most forms of parkinsonism are idiopathic, there are some cases where the symptoms may result from toxicity, drugs, genetic mutation, head trauma, or other medical disorders. History Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease have been known and treated since ancient times. However, it was not formally recognized and its symptoms were not documented until 1817 in An Essay on the Shaking Palsy by the…

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Multiple Sclerosis (abbreviated MS, also known as disseminated sclerosis or encephalomyelitis disseminata) is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelination disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). MS can cause a variety of symptoms, including changes in sensation, visual problems, muscle weakness, depression, difficulties with coordination and speech, severe fatigue, cognitive impairment, problems with balance, overheating, and pain. MS will cause impaired mobility and disability in more severe cases. Multiple sclerosis affects neurons, the cells of the brain and spinal cord that carry information, create thought and perception, and allow the brain to control the body. Surrounding and protecting some of these neurons is a fatty layer known as the myelin sheath, which helps neurons carry electrical signals. MS causes gradual destruction of myelin (demyelination) and transection of neuron axons in patches throughout the brain and spinal cord. The name multiple sclerosis refers to the multiple scars (or scleroses) on the myelin sheaths. This scarring causes symptoms which vary widely depending upon which signals are interrupted. The predominant theory today is that MS results from attacks by an individual’s immune system on the nervous system and it is therefore usually categorized as an autoimmune disease. There is a minority view that MS…

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Infectious mononucleosis, (also known as the kissing disease, or Pfeiffer’s disease, in North America as mono, and more commonly known as glandular fever in other English-speaking countries), is a disease seen most commonly in adolescents and young adults, characterized in teenagers by fever, sore throat, muscle soreness, and fatigue. Mononucleosis typically produces a very mild illness in small children. White patches on the tonsils or in the back of the throat may also be seen, (resembling strep throat). Mononucleosis is usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which infects B cells (B-lymphocytes), producing a reactive lymphocytosis and atypical T cells (T-lymphocytes) known as Downey bodies. Mononucleosis is typically transmitted from asymptomatic individuals through blood or saliva (hence “the kissing disease”), or by sharing a drink, or sharing eating utensils. The disease is far less contagious than is commonly thought. In rare cases a person may have a high resistance to infection. The disease is so-named because the count of mononuclear leukocytes (white blood cells with a one-lobed nucleus) rises significantly. There are two main types of mononuclear leukocytes: monocytes and lymphocytes. They normally account for about 35% of all white blood cells. With infectious mononucleosis, this can rise to 50-70%….

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Migraine – Health Web

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Migraine is a neurological disorder. Usually migraine causes episodes of severe or moderate headache (which is often one-sided and pulsating) lasting between several hours to three days, accompanied by gastrointestinal upsets, such as nausea and vomiting, and a heightened sensitivity to bright lights (photophobia) and noise (phonophobia). Approximately one third of people who experience migraine get a preceding aura. The word migraine is French in origin and comes from the Greek hemicrania, as does the Old English term megrim. Literally, hemicrania means “half (the) head”. Migraine is widespread in the population. In the USA 18% of women and 6% of men report have had at least one migraine episode in the previous year wrongdiagnosis.com reports that 10% of people have been diagnosed with migraine and 5% have migraine but have not been diagnosed), with seriousness varying from a rare annoyance to a life-threatening and/or daily experience. Treatments are typically expensive. Periodic or unpredictable disability can cause impoverishment due to patients’ inability to work enough or to hold a job at all. Migraines’ secondary characteristics are inconsistent. Triggers precipitating a particular episode of migraine vary widely. The efficacy of the simplest treatment, applying warmth or coolness to the affected area of…

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eningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. It may develop due to a variety of causes, including infective agents, physical injury, cancer, or certain drugs. Meningitis is a serious condition owing to the proximity of the location to the brain and spinal cord. The potential for serious damage to motor control, thought processes, or even death warrants prompt medical attention. —————— Causes Most cases of meningitis are caused by microorganisms, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites, that spread into the blood and into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Non-infectious causes include cancers, systemic lupus erythematosus and certain drugs. Although the most common cause of meningitis is viral, bacterial meningitis — Meningococcal meningitis the second most frequent cause — can be serious and life-threatening. Anyone suspected of having meningitis should have prompt medical evaluation. ——————— Epidemiology Meningitis can affect anyone in any age group, from the newborn to the elderly. Age Group | Causes Neonates | Group B Streptococci, Escherichia Coli, Listeria monocytogenes Infants | Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae Children | Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae Adults | Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Mycobacteria, Cryptococci The African Meningitis Belt The…

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énière’s disease is a disorder of the inner ear that can affect hearing and balance. It is characterized by episodes of dizziness and tinnitus and progressive hearing loss, usually in one ear. It is caused by an increase in volume and pressure of the endolymph of the inner ear. It is named after the French physician Prosper Ménière, who first reported that vertigo was caused by inner ear disorders in an article published in 1861. Symptoms The symptoms of Ménière’s are variable; not all sufferers experience the same symptoms. However, so-called “classic Ménière’s” is considered to comprise the following four symptoms: Periodic episodes of rotary vertigo (the abnormal sensation of movement) or dizziness. Fluctuating, progressive, unilateral (in one ear) or bilateral (in both ears) hearing loss, often initially in the lower frequency ranges. Unilateral or bilateral tinnitus (the perception of noises, often ringing, roaring, or whooshing), sometimes variable. A sensation of fullness or pressure in one or both ears. Ménière’s often begins with one symptom, and gradually progresses. A diagnosis may be made in the absence of all four classic symptoms. Attacks of vertigo can be severe, incapacitating, and unpredictable. In some patients, attacks of vertigo can last for hours…

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Measles – Health Web

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Measles, also known as rubeola, is a disease caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus. Reports of measles go back to at least 600 B.C., however, the first scientific description of the disease and its distinction from smallpox is attributed to the Persian physician Ibn Razi (Rhazes) 860-932 who published a book entitled “Smallpox and Measles” (in Arabic: Kitab fi al-jadari wa-al-hasbah). In 1954, the virus causing the disease was isolated, and licensed vaccines to prevent the disease became available in 1963. Measles is spread through respiration (contact with fluids from an infected person’s nose and mouth, either directly or through aerosol transmission), and is highly contagious—90% of people without immunity sharing a house with an infected person will catch it. Airborne precautions should be taken for all suspected cases of measles. The incubation period usually lasts for 4–12 days (during which there are no symptoms). Infected people remain contagious from the appearance of the first symptoms until 3–5 days after the rash appears. German measles is an unrelated condition caused by the rubella virus. Symptoms The classical symptoms of measles include a fever for at least three days, and the three Cs—cough, coryza (runny nose)…

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Marburg Virus

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e Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg hemorrhagic fever. Both the disease and virus are related to Ebola and originate in the same part of Africa (Uganda and Eastern Congo). The zoonosis is of unknown origin, but some scientists believe it may be hosted by bats. The disease is spread through bodily fluids, including blood, excrement, saliva, and vomit. There is no cure or vaccine for this deadly and infectious virus. Victims suffer a high fever, diarrhea, vomiting, and severe bleeding from bodily orifices and usually die within a week. Fatality rates range from 25 to 100%. In the spring of 2005, the virus attracted widespread press attention for an outbreak in Angola. Beginning in October 2004 and continuing into 2005, the outbreak was the world’s worst epidemic of any kind of hemorrhagic fever. The Marburg Virus The viral structure is typical of filoviruses, with long threadlike particles which have a consistent diameter but vary greatly in length from an average of 800 nanometers up to 14,000 nm, with peak infectious activity at about 790 nm. Virions (viral particles) contain seven known structural proteins. While nearly identical to Ebola virus in structure, Marburg virus is antigenically distinct from Ebola virus —…

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Alopecia areata

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Alopecia areatica Classification and external resources Alopecia areata. ICD-10 L63. ICD-9 704.01 OMIM 104000 DiseasesDB 430 MedlinePlus 001450 eMedicine derm/14 MeSH D000506 Alopecia areata (AA) is a condition affecting humans, in which hair is lost from some or all areas of the body, usually from the scalp.[1][2] Because it causes bald spots on the scalp, especially in the first stages, it is sometimes called spot baldness. In 1%–2% of cases, the condition can spread to the entire scalp (Alopecia totalis) or to the entire epidermis (Alopecia universalis). Conditions resembling AA, and having a similar cause, occur also in other species.[3] Contents [hide] • 1 Classification • 2 Signs and symptoms • 3 Causes • 4 Treatment • 5 Prognosis • 6 Epidemiology • 7 See also • 8 References • 9 External links Classification The most common type of alopecia areata involves hair loss in one or more round spots on the scalp.[2][4] • Hair may also be lost more diffusely over the whole scalp, in which case the condition is called diffuse alopecia areata.[2] • Alopecia areata monolocularis describes baldness in only one spot. It may occur anywhere on the head. • Alopecia areata…

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Addison’s disease

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It has been suggested that Autoimmune adrenalitis be merged into this article or section. (Discuss) Addison’s disease Classification and external resources ICD-10 E27.1-E27.2 ICD-9 255.4 DiseasesDB 222 MedlinePlus 000378 eMedicine med/42 MeSH D000224 Addison’s disease (also chronic adrenal insufficiency, hypocortisolism, and hypocorticism) is a rare, chronic endocrine disorder wherein the adrenal glands produce insufficient steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids).[1]. Lifelong, continuous treatment with steroid replacement therapy is required, with regular follow-up treatment and monitoring for other health problems.[2] It is generally diagnosed via blood tests and medical imaging.[2] Treatment involves replacing the absent hormones (oral hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone). Addison’s disease is named after Dr. Thomas Addison, the British physician who first described the condition in On the Constitutional and Local Effects of Disease of the Suprarenal Capsules (1849).[3] The adjective “Addisonian” describes features of the condition, and patients suffering Addison’s disease.[2] While Addison’s six patients in 1855 all had adrenal tuberculosis,[4] the term “Addison’s disease” does not imply an underlying disease process. Contents [hide] • 1 Signs and symptoms o 1.1 Symptoms o 1.2 Clinical signs o 1.3 Addisonian crisis • 2 Causes o 2.1 Adrenal dysgenesis o 2.2 Impaired steroidogenesis o 2.3 Adrenal destruction • 3 Diagnosis o…

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WHAT IS AGORAPHOBIA

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The term agoraphobia has been widely misunderstood. Its literal definition suggests a fear of “open spaces”. However, this is an incomplete and misleading view. Agoraphobics are not necessarily afraid of open spaces. Rather, they are afraid of having panicky feelings, wherever. these fearful feelings may occur. For many, they happen at home, in houses of worship, or in crowded supermarkets, places that are certainly not “open”. In fact, agoraphobia is a condition which develops when a person begins to avoid spaces or situations associated with anxiety. Typical “phobic situations” might include driving, shopping, crowded places, traveling, standing in line, being alone, meetings and social gatherings. Agoraphobia arises; from an internal anxiety condition that has become so intense that the suffering individual fears going anywhere or doing anything where these feelings of panic have repeatedly occurred before. Once the panic attacks have started, these episodes become the ongoing stress, even when other more obvious pressures have diminished. This sets up a “feedback condition” which generally leads to increased numbers of panic attacks and, for some people, an increase in the situations or events which can produce panicky feelings. Others experience fearful feelings continuously, more a feeling of overall. discomfort, rather than…

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Some people with sickle cell disease continue to have blood transfusions to prevent and treat some of the serious health problems caused by their disease. Sickle cell disease is a common and inherited blood disorder that affects 1 in 500 African Americans and 1 in 1000 Hispanic Americans. Although it’s more common in these ethnic groups, sickle cell disease can occur in people of all races. In sickle cell disease, some red blood cells become rigid and crescent (sickle) shaped. These odd-shaped cells have a difficult time moving through blood vessels. They can cause blockages and prevent healthy blood cells from taking oxygen to tissues throughout the body. When the tissue does not get enough oxygen, pain results. How Transfusions Help Sickle Cell Disease Blood transfusions give people more of the healthy red blood cells, which makes them feel better. People with sickle cell disease may receive blood transfusions to relieve pain or symptoms of the disease. They may also receive blood transfusions: • To prevent strokes • To prevent problems with their lungs • Before certain surgeries • To prevent complications during pregnancy 10 Transfusions Put You at Risk Although transfusions can help improve the health of people with…

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Iron deficiency anemia

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URL of this page: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000584.htm Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues. There are many types of anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is a decrease in the number of red cells in the blood caused by too little iron. See also: Iron deficiency anemia – children Causes Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia. About 20% of women, 50% of pregnant women, and 3% of men do not have enough iron in their body. Iron is a key part of hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in the blood. Your body normally gets iron through diet and by recycling iron from old red blood cells. Without iron, the blood cannot carry oxygen effectively. Oxygen is needed for every cell in the body to function normally. The causes of iron deficiency are: • Blood loss • Poor absorption of iron by the body • Too little iron in the diet It can also be related to lead poisoning in children. Anemia develops slowly after the normal iron stores in the body and bone marrow have run out. In general, women have smaller stores of…

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Definition Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are allergic skin rashes (or Rhus dermatitis) caused by the plants of the same name. All three plants secrete a potent, irritating oil known as urushiol that causes blistering and intense itching once it penetrates the skin. Description The allergic rash of poison ivy, oak, and sumac is characterized by red, weeping blisters and severe itching. The rash usually appears within one to two days of initial contact with the plant oil, although it may take longer to appear in areas where the skin is thicker, and lasts from one to three weeks (longer in severe cases). It starts as itchy, inflamed red patches or streaks, and as the oil penetrates into the skin, blisters and small papules form. Poison plant rash cannot be spread from person to person by contact with the rash itself or fluid from the blisters, and scratching does not spread the rash (although it can cause scarring and potential infection). Only urushiol oil can cause the rash. Transmission Urushiol oil or resin is found in the leaves, roots, and woody parts (i.e., vines and stems) of the poison ivy, oak, and sumac plants. It is a clear substance that…

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Food Allergy

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Patients and Consumers Your Food Allergy Guidelines Questions Answered With guidance from leading expert members, the AAAAI has developed an FAQ sheet and online Food Allergy Library that contains a collection of patient-friendly links and resources. Egg Allergy/Intolerance and the Flu Vaccine Egg allergy versus egg intolerance – it makes a difference when getting the flu vaccine. Search your Symptoms on our Virtual AllergistTM Find out more about your allergy and asthma symptoms with The Virtual Allergist, our interactive symptom checker. Professionals and Members Educating Patients About the Food Allergy Guidelines With guidance from leading expert members, the AAAAI has developed a patient-friendly FAQ sheet. The FAQ is available for you to print and personalize with your contact information. There is also an online Food Allergy Library that contains a collection of patient-friendly links and resources. Administering Influenza Vaccine to Egg Allergic Recipients The 2010 influenza vaccine has incorporated the H1N1 strains, and thus a single TIV is being offered this season. Read more in a special report prepared by AAAAI members Matthew J. Greenhawt, MD, MBA and James T. Li, MD, PhD. Member Benefit – Faculty of 1000 Maximize your member benefits and stay current with new research and…

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Published under Health Articles Monday, September 13th, 2010 When we feel stress and are anxious over a new job, an old relationship, or even just the everyday conundrums we all face from time to time, it can be beneficial to the nerves to take some vitamins minerals and added supplements that have proven benefit for relief of stress and anxiety. By adding them to our daily diet we can be assured of eliminating those frayed nerves and feeling calm and self assured. While the stress relieving vitamins are not necessarily miracle workers you will be amazed at how effective they can be. Commonly people worry to the point of becoming physically ill when faced with financial or personal problems beyond control. While popping a pill or two is the most popular way to cope, they can provide only a short term means of relief and many stress reducing sedatives can even become habit forming. Magnesium and other natural ingredients relieve anxiety Magnesium is one of the most effective natural ingredients to calm the nerves while relieving stress. Magnesium is a mineral that cannot be manufactured in the human body yet is extremely valuable to our kidneys, brain, heart, and nervous…

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Latex allergy

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may be seen as the latest ‘issue’; but it isn’t going to just go away. Introduction It has been estimated that up to 30% of the population has atopic allergy and 43% of NHS staff suffer from some sort of skin irritation. Within these groups a latex sensitivity of 10% has been calculated – which is 3% or 1.5 million of the British population who are at risk.(Turner, Occupational Health 1997; 49:2, 57-60) (Bandolier I) The AIDS epidemic of the 1980s prompted a massive increase in the use of latex gloves for healthcare workers who are increasingly at risk due to the increased use of ‘economic’ latex gloves and enhanced sensitivity from other latex products also encountered in daily work. (Packham) (Bandolier I) Sometimes sensitivity is encountered from the chemical accelerators used in the manufacturing process. It should be noted that Glove powder is just a carrier of latex proteins not the primary allergen. Likewise the strength of detergent used in hand washing ‘soap’ is a critical factor – especially if the frequency is high and no emollient or skin aftercare treatments are provided; broken skin may lead to further sensitisation via the ingress of allergens. (Charous) This phenomenon also…

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celiac disease

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Celiac disease is a digestive disease that damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. People who have celiac disease cannot tolerate gluten, a protein in wheat, rye, and barley. Gluten is found mainly in foods but may also be found in everyday products such as medicines, vitamins, and lip balms. The small intestine is shaded above. When people with celiac disease eat foods or use products containing gluten, their immune system responds by damaging or destroying villi—the tiny, fingerlike protrusions lining the small intestine. Villi normally allow nutrients from food to be absorbed through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream. Without healthy villi, a person becomes malnourished, no matter how much food one eats. Villi on the lining of the small intestine help absorb nutrients. Celiac disease is both a disease of malabsorption—meaning nutrients are not absorbed properly—and an abnormal immune reaction to gluten. Celiac disease is also known as celiac sprue, nontropical sprue, and gluten-sensitive enteropathy. Celiac disease is genetic, meaning it runs in families. Sometimes the disease is triggered—or becomes active for the first time—after surgery, pregnancy, childbirth, viral infection, or severe emotional stress. What are the symptoms of celiac…

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About Pinkeye

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Conjunctivitis, commonly known as pinkeye, is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, the clear membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids. While pinkeye can be alarming because it may make the eyes extremely red and can spread rapidly, it’s a fairly common condition and usually causes no long-term eye or vision damage. But if your child shows symptoms of pinkeye, it’s important to see a doctor. Some kinds of pinkeye go away on their own, but other types require treatment. Causes Pinkeye can be caused by many of the bacteria and viruses responsible for colds and other infections, — including ear infections, sinus infections, and sore throats — and by the same types of bacteria that cause the sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) chlamydia and gonorrhea. Pinkeye also can be caused by allergies. These cases tend to happen more frequently among kids who also have other allergic conditions, such as hay fever. Triggers of allergic conjunctivitis include grass, ragweed pollen, animal dander, and dust mites. Sometimes a substance in the environment can irritate the eyes and cause pinkeye; for example, chemicals (such as chlorine and soaps) and air pollutants (such as smoke and…

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Asthma

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Asthma (disambiguation). Asthma Classification and external resources Peak flow meters are used to measure one’s peak expiratory flow rate ICD-10 J45. ICD-9 493 OMIM 600807 DiseasesDB 1006 MedlinePlus 000141 eMedicine article/806890 article/796274 article/800119 article/137501 article/296301 article/1000997 article/353436 article/88849 MeSH allergy&field=entry#TreeC08.127.108 C08.127.108 Asthma (from the Greek άσθμα, ásthma, “panting”) is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm.[1] Symptoms include wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.[2] Treatment of acute symptoms is usually with an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist (such as salbutamol).[3] Symptoms can be prevented by avoiding triggers, such as allergens[4] and irritants, and by inhaling corticosteroids.[5] Leukotriene antagonists are less effective than corticosteroids and thus less preferred.[6] The prevalence of asthma has increased significantly since the 1970s. As of 2009, 300 million people were affected worldwide.[7] In 2009 asthma caused 250,000 deaths globally.[7] Despite this, with proper control of asthma with step down therapy, prognosis is generally good. Contents [hide] • 1 Classification o 1.1 Brittle asthma o 1.2 Asthma attack o 1.3 Status asthmaticus o 1.4 Exercise induced o 1.5 Occupational • 2…

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Anaphylaxis

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Anaphylactic shock) Jump to: navigation, search Anaphylaxis Classification and external resources A rash on the back of a person with anaphylaxis. ICD-10 T78.2 DiseasesDB 29153 eMedicine med/128 MeSH D000707 Anaphylaxis is an acute multi-system severe type I hypersensitivity reaction. The term comes from the Greek words ἀνά ana (against) and φύλαξις phylaxis (protection).[1] Due in part to the variety of definitions, between 1% and 15% of the population of the United States can be considered “at risk” for having an anaphylactic reaction if they are exposed to one or more allergens. Of those people who actually experience anaphylaxis, up to 1% may die as a result.[2] Anaphylaxis results in approximately 1,500 deaths per year in the U.S.[3][4] In England, mortality rates for anaphylaxis have been reported as up to 0.05 per 100,000 population, or around 10-20 a year.[5] Anaphylactic reactions requiring hospital treatment appear to be increasing, with authorities in England reporting a threefold increase between 1994 and 2004.[6] Based on the pathophysiology, anaphylaxis can be divided into “true anaphylaxis” and “pseudo-anaphylaxis” or “anaphylactoid reaction.” The symptoms, treatment, and risk of death are the same; however, “true” anaphylaxis is caused by degranulation of…

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Allergic rhinitis

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Hay fever) Jump to: navigation, search For the play, see Hay Fever. Allergic rhinitis Pollen grains from a variety of common plants can cause hay fever. ICD-10 J30. ICD-9 477 OMIM 607154 DiseasesDB 31140 MedlinePlus 000813 eMedicine ent/194 med/104, ped/2560 MeSH D012221 Allergic rhinitis, pollenosis or hay fever is an allergic inflammation of the nasal airways. It occurs when an allergen such as pollen or dust is inhaled by an individual with a sensitized immune system, and triggers antibody production. The specific antibody is immunoglobulin E (IgE) which binds to mast cells and basophils containing histamine. IgE bound to mast cells are stimulated by pollen and dust, causing the release of inflammatory mediators such as histamine (and other chemicals).[1] This causes itching, swelling, and mucus production. Symptoms vary in severity between individuals. Very sensitive individuals can experience hives or other rashes. Particulate matter in polluted air and chemicals such as chlorine and detergents, which can normally be tolerated, can greatly aggravate the condition. Contents [hide] • 1 Classification • 2 Signs and symptoms • 3 Cause • 4 Management o 4.1 Dietary o 4.2 Antihistamines o 4.3 Steroids o 4.4 Decongestants o 4.5…

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Reye’s Syndrome

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Definition Reye’s syndrome is a disorder that primarily affects the liver and brain. It attacks the nervous system very quickly and can cause death Description Reye’s syndrome primarily affects children and teenagers. In almost all cases, it follows a viral illness, such as a cold (see common cold entry), the flu (see influenza entry), or chickenpox (see chickenpox entry). The disorder can affect any organ in the body, but its most serious effects occur in the brain and the liver. As the disorder develops, it attacks the body’s nervous system. It produces symptoms such as listlessness, confusion, seizures, and coma. In extreme cases, it can lead to death. Reye’s syndrome is a rare disorder. It was first discovered in the early 1970s. The number of cases of Reye’s syndrome rose slowly until 1980. In that year, 555 cases of the disorder were diagnosed. Researchers had learned at that point that children who are given aspirin are at risk for Reye’s syndrome. Doctors began to warn parents against the use of aspirin with sick children. As a result of those warnings, the number of cases of Reye’s syndrome began to fall. By the late 1990s the condition was very rare in…

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What is hepatitis C? Hepatitis (HEP-ah-TY-tis) makes your liver swell and stops it from working right. You need a healthy liver. The liver does many things to keep you alive. The liver fights infections and stops bleeding. It removes drugs and other poisons from your blood. The liver also stores energy for when you need it. What causes hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is caused by a virus. A virus is a germ that causes sickness. (For example, the flu is caused by a virus.) People can pass viruses to each other. The virus that causes hepatitis C is called the hepatitis C virus. How could I get hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is spread by contact with an infected person’s blood. You could get hepatitis C (la Qdar allah) by : # sharing drug needles # getting pricked with a needle that has infected blood on it (hospital workers can get hepatitis C this way) # having sex with an infected person, especially if you or your partner has other sexually transmitted diseases # being born to a mother with hepatitis C. # Using blood tools as in case of detection of BGL [blood glucose level] MAY transmit Hepatits C virus…

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الحمرة او الـ Erysipelas – تنطق بضم حرف الحاء – هي احد الامراض المنتشرة والتي تسببها البكتريا     اشهر انواع البكتريا المسببة لهذا المرض هي بكتريا من النوع Streptococcus pyogenes حيث تصيب الجلد بالعدوي كما هو واضح في الصورة السابقة .. وتكون الصورة الظاهرة من هذا المرض هو وجود جزء ملتهب له لون احمر مميز علي الجلد يشعر المريض بالالم عند لمسه … ويصاحب ذلك ارتفاع في درجه الحرارة   يصيب هذا النوع من البكتريا اماكن معينة من الجلد اشهرها الوجه – وبالاخص منطقة الخدود – وكذلك القدمين والذراعين حيث تكون الانسجة الدهنية fat tissues الموجوده تحت الجلد هي انسب الاماكن التي تنمو وتتكاثر فيها البكتريا     تصل البكتريا الي الجلد عن طريق الجروح الملوثة .. العمليات الجراحيه .. عن طريق الـ minor trauma او وجود ulcer علي الجلد حيث تجد البكتريا الفرصه للنمو والتكاثر … ويكثر هذا المرض في الاشخاص الذين لديهم مناعه ضعيفة وفي مرضي السكر وفي حالات الـ fungal infections   Diagnosis :gara7: يتم تشخيص هذه العدوي البكتيرية عن الطرق الشكل واللون المميزين للعدوي وطبيعي جدا ان تحليل الـ ASO ونسبة كرات الدم البيضاء تكون مرتفعه Treatment يتم علاج الـ Erysipelas عن طريق استخدام penicillinase resistant antibiotics مثل الـ salbactam مع الـ ampicillin والمعروف تجاريا…

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بسم اللله الرحمن الرحيم تعريف الجلوكوما  المياه الزرقاء.. عبارة عن ارتفاع فى ضغط العين أكثر من المعدل الطبيعى يؤدى إذا لم يعالج إلى تدمير العصب البصرى، وينتج عنه فقد البصر. ما هو ضغط العين الطبيعى؟ العين مثل الكرة لابد لها من ضغط داخلها لتحتفظ الكرة بشكلها، وتقوم بوظيفتها، مثل إطار السيارة لابد أن يكون داخله “ضغط” لكى يحتفظ الإطار بشكله ويقوم بوظيفته، فإذا قل الضغط داخل الكرة أو داخل إطار السيارة فستفقد شكلها، ولا تقوم بالغرض التى صنعت من أجله، كذلك إذا زاد الضغط داخل إطار السيارة أكثر مما يحتمل أو تحتمل، فقد تنفجر الكرة أو ينفجر إطار السيارة، كذلك كرة أو مقلة العين، إذا قل الضغط بها فقد يحدث بها مضاعفات قد تؤثر على النظر، وكذلك إذا زاد الضغط داخلها، فقد يؤدى ذلك فى النهاية إلى فقد النظر. كيف يمكن أن أعرف أن ضغط عينى طبيعى أو غير طبيعى؟ عادة لا يشعر الإنسان بضغط عينيه أى لا يستطيع أن يقدر إذا ما كان ضغط عينه عالياً أو منخفضاً.. ولكن طبيب العيون هو الذى يستطيع قياس ذلك بأجهزة خاصة. إذن هل يلزم كل شخص أن يذهب لطبيب العيون لقياس ضغط العين؟ للإجابة عن هذا السؤال يلزم التأكيد على النقاط الآتية: – من الضرورى قياس ضغط العين عند أى استشارة طبية…

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Anemia

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  Anemia (U.S. spelling) or anaemia means not having enough red blood cells or hemoglobin in the blood. Contents 1 Types or causes of anemia 1.1 Microcytic anemia 1.2 Normocytic anemia 1.3 Macrocytic anemia 1.4 Dimorphic anemia  Types or causes of anemia  Microcytic anemia Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia overall Hemoglobinopathies — much rarer Sickle-cell disease (once called sickle-cell anemia) Thalassemia  Normocytic anemia Acute blood loss Anemia of chronic disease Aplastic anemia (bone marrow failure)  Macrocytic anemia Megaloblastic anemia due to not having enough of either vitamin B12 or folic acid (or both) Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune problem with the parietal cells of the stomach Alcoholism Methotrexate, zidovudine, and other drugs that stop DNA replication. This is the most common cause in nonalcoholic patients.  Dimorphic anemia Dimorphic anemia means two types of anemia at the same time. For example, macrocytic hypochromic, due to hookworm infestation leading to not enough of both iron and vitamin B12 or folic acid [1] or following a blood transfusion.

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Alzheimer’s Disease is a -disease that slowly destroys a person’s memory until the person dies -from forgetting how to perform basic functions like swallowing or breathing. -Alzheimer’s Disease is not a normal part of aging. -There is no known cause for Alzheimer’s disease – and even though we are not able to cure it there are medications that can be taken to relieve the patient of some of the symptoms. – It is named after Alois Alzheimer, who discovered the disease in 1906. There are, however, – certain lifestyle habits that can be adopted to delay the onset of the disease.

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Alopecia

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  A man losing his hair; this is a normal process that happens to some men Mohamed ElBaradei has lost some of his hair Alopecia is a condition which is found in humans, as well as in some animals. When it occurs, it will mean that those affected will permanently lose some (or all) of their hair. Since some of the factors are linked to the genes on the chromosome, the condition can be seen more often with men, than with women. People who have the condition will become bald Alopecia areata is the name for a condition in which a person suddenly loses his or her hair. It mostly happens to men, who become bald.

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Albinism

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Albino African Penguin An albino baby girl in an orphanage in Malawi. Albinism is a condition some people and animals are born with. This condition is caused by a lack of pigment (color) in their hair, eyes, and skin. A person or animal with albinism is sometimes called an albino, but many people prefer to be called a “person with albinism”. People with albinism usually have white or light blonde hair and very fair skin. Their eyes are blue, or rarely pink-ish. People with albinism in reality do have some problems including bad vision and getting sunburn easily. All of these problems are because people with alibinism have little or no pigments in their eyes, skin and hair.[1] Vision problems in albinism include nystagmus (irregular fast movements of the eyes), strabismus (where the eyes fail to balance) and refractory errors (like being near-sighted or far-sighted). Albino animals are easily attacked by predators because they cannot hide themselves like the non-albino members of their species.[needs proof] Genetics of albinism  Albinism is a hereditary condition. It is usually inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern; it means, both parents should carry the albinism gene to have a child with albinism.[1]  Famous people with albinism …

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AIDS

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Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a syndrome caused by a virus called HIV. Acquired means that people get the disease from others who already have it. Immune or Immuno- talks about the immune system. The immune system is the part of the body that fights infectious disease. Deficiency means not enough. An immuno-deficiency is a problem where the immune system is damaged and cannot fight disease well. Syndrome is a disease that makes many different problems in the body. Contents 1 How many people have AIDS 2 Where HIV started 3 How HIV can harm the body 4 HIV and AIDS 4.1 AIDS defining illnesses 4.2 CD4 T-cell count 5 Treatment of HIV and AIDS 6 Poverty and HIV 7 Ways to stop AIDS 7.1 Education 7.2 Safe sex and needle exchange 7.3 HIV vaccine 8 Different ideas 9 Other websites 9.1 Different ideas 10 References How many people have AIDS Number of people in the world with HIV from 1979-1995 About 3,000,000 people died because of AIDS in 2004. About 500,000 of these people were children. About 40,000,000 people in the world had HIV in 2004. Most of the people who have HIV live…

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