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دواء جديد ينضم إلى قائمة أدوية معالجة قصور القلب المزمن

دواء جديد ينضم إلى قائمة أدوية معالجة قصور القلب المزمن

نبذة سريعة عن قصور القلب المزمن – قصور القلب هو حالة صحية خطيرة لا يوجد لها علاج نهائي. لكن الكثير من الناس الذين يعانون من قصور القلب يعيشون حياة ممتعة كاملة عندما يتم إدارة المرض ومعالجته باستخدام الأدوية المخصصة لذلك والتي تُصرف تحت إشراف طبيب مختص عن طريق وتغيير نمط الحياة (التغذية، النشاط، .. إلخ)  إلى حياة صحية أكثر. ومن المفيد أيضا الحصول على دعم من العائلة والأصدقاء الذين يفهمون الحالة الصحية. – إنّ التفسير المُبسط لما يحدث عند الإصابة بقصور القلب المزمن هو عدم استطاعة القلب ضخ ما يكفي من الدم لتلبية احتياجات الجسم من الدم والأكسجين، وعندما يبدأ القلب المحاولة في تعويض ذلك يحدث ما يُسمى بقصور القلب، حيث يعمل القلب على توسيع حجراته وزيادة الكتلة العضلية للقلب وذلك لضخ كمية أكبر من الدماء وبقوة أكبر وبالتالي يحدث تضخم القلب الذي ينتج عنه احتباس للسوائل في الأجزاء السفلية من الجسم كالساقين واحتباسها في الرئتين أيضاً . نبذة عن الدواء الجديد لمعالجة قصور القلب المزمن 1. التركيبة العلمية: – يحتوي الدواء الجديد على خليط من مادتين فعالتين هما: فالسارتان و ساكوبتريل  ويتم تسويقه تحت الاسم التجاري انترستو  من شركة نوفارتس وتم اعتماده من المنظمة العامة للغذاء والدواء. أ. ساكوبتريل : هو دواء يستخدم لمعالجة ضغط الدم، عن طريق زيادة مستويات بروتينات…

اغلاق الشريان الرحمي مع دواء الميثوتركسيت يفيد في علاج الحمل خارج الرحم

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اغلاق الشريان الرحمي مع دواء الميثوتركسيت يفيد في علاج الحمل خارج الرحم

 اكتشف الباحثون ان اغلاق الشريان الرحمي مع دواء الميثوتركسيت هو العلاج الفعال لعلاج الحمل خارج الرحم (فى عنق الرحم ) وقال الباحثون أيضًا انه و بناء على عدد محدود من المرضى الذين كنا قادرين على تقييمهم ، فإن الميثوتركسيت هوالخط الأول لعلاج الحمل خارج الرحم و خاصة في عنق الرحم. و استعرض الباحثون 15 حالة تعاملوا بهم بين عامي 1997 و 2008. ووجد الباحثون أيضا أن متوسط الاقامة في المستشفى كان 7 أيام للذين أجريت لهم اغلاق الشريان الرحمي بينما 5 أيام للذين أخذوا الدواء الميثوتريكسيت. و لم يجد الباحثون أي مضاعفات من اغلاق الشريان الرحمي على الحالات التي تم التعامل معها. ولكن المشكلة في هذه الخطوة انها تؤثر على الخصوبة عند المرأة فلذلك يجب عليها معرفة ذلك . ومن ذلك لخص الباحثون أن : اغلاق الشريان الرحمي هو أحد الاشياء التي يمكن عملها لعلاج الحمل خارج الرحم قبل الشروع باستئصال الرحم

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مؤسسة الغذاء و الدواء تحد من استخدام مسكنات ” أسيتامينوفين في الوصفات الطبية

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مؤسسة الغذاء و الدواء تحد من استخدام مسكنات ” أسيتامينوفين في الوصفات الطبية

المؤسسة الامريكية للغذاء و الدواء اعلنت مطالبتها لصانعي الادوية للحد من كمية الاسيتامينوفين أو الباراسيتامول “ في تركيبة مسكنات الالم الى ما لا يزيد عن 325 ملغرام للقرص او الكبسولة و ذلك لتقليل من تعاطي جرعات زائدة و تقليل الضرر الناتج للكبد . هذا القرار -و الذي دُرس خلال اكثر من 3 سنوات – يؤثر على كثير من الادوية المسكنة والتي تحتوي الاسيتامينوفين مع مواد فعالة اخرى مثل مسكنات الإفيونات كالكودين ، أكسيكودون و هيدروكودون. بعض هذه الادوية تحتوي على 750 ملغم من الاسيتامينوفين للجرعة الواحدة. قيود الجرعة الجديدة لا تنطبق على الكثير من مسكنات الالم التي تصرف دون وصفة طبية و ادوية الرشح و الجيوب الانفية و السعال التي تحتوي عادةً على اسيتامينوفين كحد اقصى 500 ملغرام على الرغم من احتواء بعضها ممتدة الاثر – و التي تؤخذ بكميات اقل – على 650 ملغرام. و تطالب مؤسسة الغذاء و الدواء ايضا الشركات الصانعة لتحديث الملصقات على جميع الادوية التي تحتوي على اسيتامينوفين لتحتوي على تحذير من مخاطر اصابة الكبد الشديدة في حالة اخذ جرعات كثيرة او اخذه مع الكحول. يؤكد مسؤولو المؤسسة على ان المرضى الذين يستخدمون المسكنات مع الاستيامينوفين بجرعات تزيد على 325 ملغرام ، يمكن ان يستمروا باخذها بامان تحت اشراف الطبيب على ان لا تزيد الجرعة…

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مسكن سحرى يؤدى للموت !!

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مسكن سحرى يؤدى للموت !!

أدناه، تحذير من هذا الدواء المسكن المشهور، اسم المادة الفعالة هي (ديكلوفيناكdiclofenac) وموجودة تحت عدة أسماء تجارية مثل: ديكلون، فولتارين، ديكلوفيناك، دينابار.. الخ.. بشكل حبوب وتحاميل ومراهم وإبر حقن.. قالت لي إحدى صديقاتي أن أربع من أفراد أسرتها ماتوا من نفس الإبرة المتكررة وفي نفس المشفى من مشافي دمشق “المجانية للبعض”… كل الأدوية الصيدلانية هي مواد كيماوية غير آمنة ولها عدة أثار جانبية، حتى المسكن الآخر الشهير (سيتامول) وله عدة أسماء تجارية مثل باراسيتامول/ بانادول/ تيلينول.. إلخ  عشرون حبة سوية تقتل الشخص البالغ، وشرب عدة حبوب يدمر الكبد بالتدريج! يمكنك بنفسك قراءة ورقة الدواء لرؤية الآثار السلبية الخطيرة، والأفضل تعلم تبحث النت عن أي دواء قبل أن تبلعه وفقط في حال الضرورة القصوى…. في معظم الحالات والأمراض وحتى في الآلام، هناك عدة وصفات وكمادات ومواد طبيعية توقف الألم بفعالية دون آثار جانبية. دقائق قليلة عاشتها الطفلة (ياسمين.م) ابنة السنتين بعد أن حقنت بنصف إبرة دكلون من قبل أحد الأطباء، إثر إصابتها بحرق سطحي، فيما الطبيب المعالج نقل خبر الوفاة بقوله: «كان لديكم ثلاث بنات أصبحن اثنتين». وأدار ظهره غير آبه لصراخ والدتها التي أكدت أن التشخيص بيّن أن ضخ الطبيب لجرعة زائدة من الدكلون في دم ابنتها كانت كفيلة بجعلها مجرد رقم في سجل موتى المشفى، ورغم ذلك أضحت هذه الإبرة…

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10 مفاهيم مغلوطة عن اللقاحات

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10 مفاهيم مغلوطة عن اللقاحات

منذ اخترع الطبيب البريطاني جينر لقاحه ضد الجدري عام 1796، واللقاحات تستخدم للوقاية من الأمراض السارية والخطرة التي تسببها الجراثيم أو الفيروسات. يقوم مبدأ اللقاحات على إعطاء جرعة من العامل الممرض (الباكتيريا أو الفيروس) وهو ميت أو ضعيف (أي أنه لا يمكن له أن يسبب المرض)، لفئات الناس المعرضة للمرض، لكي تتشكل في جسم الشخص الملقح أجسام مضادة antibodies، بإمكانها أن تحارب العامل الممرض إذا وجد طريقه إلى ذلك الشخص. إلا أن قبول الناس بمبدأ تطبيق اللقاحات على كل البشر بقي يتراوح بين أخذ ورد خلال القرنين الماضيين، وما زالت الأسئلة التالية تتردد على لسان الناس (وبعض الأطباء): – من يجب أن يتلقى اللقاح، ومتى؟ – ما درجة الحماية التي يوفرها اللقاح بالفعل؟ – ما هي مضار اللقاح، وهل تفوق فائدته؟ كل ذلك حدا بموضوع التلقيح أن يبقى متأرجحا في ذهن الكثيرين. ونعرض فيما يلي أهم المغالطات التي يصدقها الكثيرون حول اللقاحات وأسباب عدم صحتها: 1- لن يحميك اللقاح إلا إذا تلقّح كل الناس هذا غير صحيح. فبعض الناس لن يتلقحوا، إما لعدم قناعتهم باللقاح أو لجهلهم بوجوده، أو لان حالتهم الصحية لا تسمح لهم بذلك، ومع ذلك فقد استفادت الأجيال السابقة استفادة كبرى من التلقيح، حتى أن أحد الأمراض (الجدري) اختفى من الوجود، وبذلك أنقذ حوالي 5 ملايين ممن…

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Fenistil ®

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Antipruritic, antihistaminic, antiallergic Fenistil contains: Syrup: 100ml contain: Active principle: Dimethindene maleate (DCI) 0.01g; Excip. q.s. Drops: 100ml contain: Active principle: Dimethindene maleate (DCI) 0.1g; Conserv.: Excip. q.s. Coated tablets: 1 tablet contains: Active principle: Dimethindene maleate (DCI) 1mg; Excip. q.s. ad compr. obd. 1 capsule contains: Active principle: Dimethindene maleate (DCI) 4mg; Acidum glutamicum, Excip. Once daily What is Fenistil used for? Fenistil is a potent antipruritic antihistamine, characterized by the small size of its effective dose and its rapidity of action. Its effect sets in after 20 to 60 minutes and lasts several hours. Fenistil drops as well as Fenistil syrup is particularly indicated in paediatric practice. Fenistil is indicated as symptomatic treatment of allergic reactions: urticaria, allergies of the upper respiratory tract such as hey fever and perennial rhinitis, food and drug allergies; pruritus of various origins, except pruritus due to cholestasis; insect bites. Fenistil is also indicated for pruritus in eruptive skin diseases such as chicken-pox. Fenistil can be as an adjuvant in eczema and other pruriginous dermatoses of allergic origin. When must Fenistil not be used? When the patient is hypersensitive to the active substance. What precautions are required when using Fenistil? Observe the customary…

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Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy (CMPA)

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Immune System: Nature vs. Nurture By Carina Venter, Allergy Dietitian The development of the infant’s immune system starts very early on in pregnancy. This process continues into old age and is affected by dietary and environmental factors throughout the life cycle: gestation, infancy, toddlerhood, childhood, adulthood and old age. Midwives, health visitors and nursery nurses are often the first line of contact regarding any problems pregnant women or parents of infants/young children may experience. It is therefore important that Healthcare Professionals should understand the development of the infant’s immune system and be aware of factors that could be beneficial or detrimental to this process. These factors were discussed at a round table meeting, which took place on Friday 26th May 2006 in Guildford. The panel consisted of experts in the field of immunity, allergy and nutrition who participated in authoring the three preceding feature articles on the infant immune system*. The members are listed below: Members Jane Clarke, Panel Chair and Nutritionist, The Times Dr. Amolak Bansal, Consultant Immunologist and Allergist Carina Venter, Allergy Dietitian Rosan Meyer, Paediatric Dietitian Following on from these articles and the meeting, the panel felt that this information should be shared with Healthcare Professionals and…

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1-abciximab (Reopro ®): Platelet aggregation inhibition: (PCI): 0.25 mg/kg IV 10–60 minute prior to PCI, then 0.125 mcg/kg/minute (Maximum 10 mcg/min) IV Infusion x 12 hours. The safety and efficacy of Abciximab have only been investigated with concomitant administration of heparin and aspirin as described in CLINICAL STUDIES. In patients with failed PCls, the continuous infusion of Abciximab should be stopped because there is no evidence for Abciximab efficacy in that setting. In the event of serious bleeding that cannot be controlled by compression, Abciximab and heparin should be discontinued immediately. 2- Aggrenox ® (dipyridamole/ASA): INDICATIONS: AGGRENOX (aspirin/extended-release dipyridamole) is indicated to reduce the risk of stroke in patients who have had transient ischemia of the brain or completed ischemic stroke due to thrombosis. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION: The recommended dose of AGGRENOX (aspirin/extended-release dipyridamole) is one capsule given orally twice daily, one in the morning and one in the evening. The capsules should be swallowed whole without chewing. AGGRENOX capsules may be administered with or without food. 3-anagrelide (Agrylin ®): INDICATIONS: AGRYLIN Capsules are indicated for the treatment of patients with thrombocythemia, secondary to myeloproliferative disorders, to reduce the elevated platelet count and the risk of thrombosis and to ameliorate…

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Ciprofloxacin (Video)

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Michael J. Postelnick, BSPharm Senior Infectious Diseases Pharmacist, Clinical Coordinator, Department of Pharmacy, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois Determining whether a patient who reports being allergic to penicillin (PCN) can safely receive a PCN or other beta-lactam drug can be difficult. Dr. Lomaestro, in a previous article,[1] outlined the mechanisms associated with PCN reactions. Immediate reactions, which are immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated, are of the greatest concern, because they are more often life-threatening. Although careful history-taking will identify patients with clear recollection of serious reactions, vague or lack of recall of the type or severity of reaction does not rule out the possibility of anaphylaxis. PCN skin testing has the potential to identify patients at high risk for a severe reaction. Before using this method, however, it is important to be aware of associated caveats and limitations. The immunogenic components of PCN, which result from the opening of the PCN ring under physiologic conditions, have been well-defined. The major determinant is benzylpenicilloyl, whereas minor determinants are penicillin G (benzylpenicillin), penicilloate, and penilloate.[2] The major determinant, conjugated to a polylysine carrier molecule, is again available as a commercial product (Pre-Pen®).[3] Minor determinants other than PCN G are not commercially available. Some allergists, primarily…

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Mobic®

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(meloxicam) Tablets Mobic® (meloxicam) Oral Suspension WARNING RISK OF SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR and GASTROINTESTINAL EVENTS Cardiovascular Risk Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may increase with duration of use. Patients with cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular disease may be at greater risk [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. MOBIC is contraindicated for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Gastrointestinal Risk NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse reactions including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinal events [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. DRUG DESCRIPTION What are the possible side effects of meloxicam (Mobic)? Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop taking meloxicam and seek medical attention or call your doctor at once if you have any of…

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Aldactone

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Top of Form DRUG DESCRIPTION What are the possible side effects of spironolactone (Aldactone)? Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop using this medication and call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects: ·numbness or tingly feeling; ·muscle pain or weakness; ·slow, fast, or uneven heartbeat; ·feeling drowsy, restless, or light-headed; ·urinating less than usual or not at all; … Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Aldactone » Aldactone oral tablets contain 25 mg, 50 mg, or 100 mg of the aldosterone antagonist spironolactone, 17-hydroxy-7α-mercapto-3-oxo-17α-pregn-4-ene-21-carboxylic acid γ-lactone acetate, which has the following structural formula:   Spironolactone is practically insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol, and freely soluble in benzene and in chloroform. Inactive ingredients include calcium sulfate, corn starch, flavor, hypromellose, iron oxide, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, povidone, and titanium dioxide. Last reviewed on RxList: 8/19/2009 Aldactone Indications & Dosage   INDICATIONS Aldactone (spironolactone) is indicated in the management of: Primary hyperaldosteronism for: Establishing the diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism by therapeutic trial. Short-term preoperative treatment of patients with primary hyperaldosteronism. Long-term…

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ADDERALL®

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DRUG DESCRIPTION What are the possible side effects of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine (Adderall, Adderall XR)? Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop using amphetamine and dextroamphetamine and call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects: fast, pounding, or uneven heartbeats; feeling light-headed, fainting; increased blood pressure (severe headache, blurred vision, trouble concentrating,… Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Adderall » A single-entity amphetamine product combining the neutral sulfate salts of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine, with the dextro isomer of amphetamine saccharate and d, l-amphetamine aspartate monohydrate. EACH TABLET CONTAINS: 5 mg 7.5 mg 10 mg 12.5 mg 15 mg 20 mg 30 mg Dextroamphetamine Saccharate 1.25 mg 1.875 mg 2.5 mg 3.125 mg 3.75 mg 5 mg 7.5 mg Amphetamine Aspartate Monohydrate 1.25 mg 1.875 mg 2.5 mg 3.125 mg 3.75 mg 5 mg 7.5 mg Dextroamphetamine Sulfate USP 1.25 mg 1.875 mg 2.5 mg 3.125 mg 3.75 mg 5 mg 7.5 mg Amphetamine Sulfate USP 1.25 mg 1.875 mg 2.5 mg 3.125 mg 3.75 mg 5 mg 7.5 mg Total amphetamine…

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LUMIGAN®

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(bimatoprost) Ophthalmic Solution 0.03% DRUG DESCRIPTION What are the possible side effects of bimatoprost ophthalmic (Lumigan)? Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop using bimatoprost ophthalmic and call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects: redness, swelling, itching, or pain in or around your eye; oozing or discharge from your eye; increased sensitivity to light; vision changes. Less serious side… Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Lumigan » LUMIGAN® (bimatoprost ophthalmic solution) 0.03% is a synthetic prostamide analog with ocular hypotensive activity. Its chemical name is (Z)-7- [(1R,2R,3R,5S)-3,5-Dihydroxy-2-[1E,3S)-3-hydroxy-5-phenyl-1-pentenyl]cyclopentyl]-5-N-ethylheptenamide, and its molecular weight is 415.58. Its molecular formula is C35H27NO4 . Its chemical structure is: Bimatoprost is a powder, which is very soluble in ethyl alcohol and methyl alcohol and slightly soluble in water. LUMIGAN® is a clear, isotonic, colorless, sterile ophthalmic solution with an osmolality of approximately 290 mOsmol/kg. Contains: Active: bimatoprost 0.3 mg/mL; Preservative: Benzalkonium chloride 0.05 mg/mL; Inactives: Sodium chloride; sodium phosphate, dibasic; citric acid; and purified water. Sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid may be added to adjust pH….

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ACTOS

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  ® (pioglitazone hydrochloride) Tablets   DRUG DESCRIPTION   What are the possible side effects of pioglitazone (Actos)?   Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.   Stop using pioglitazone and call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:   feeling short of breath, even with mild exertion;   swelling or rapid weight gain;   chest pain, general ill feeling;   nausea, stomach pain, low fever, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stools,…   Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Actos »   ACTOS (pioglitazone hydrochloride) is an oral antidiabetic agent that acts primarily by decreasing insulin resistance. ACTOS is used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [NIDDM] or adult-onset diabetes). Pharmacological studies indicate that ACTOS improves sensitivity to insulin in muscle and adipose tissue and inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis. ACTOS improves glycemic control while reducing circulating insulin levels. Pioglitazone [(±)-5-[[4-[2-(5-ethyl-2-pyridinyl)ethoxy]phenyl]methyl]-2,4-] thiazolidinedione monohydrochloride belongs to a different chemical class and has a different pharmacological action than the sulfonylureas, metformin, or the α-glucosidase inhibitors. The molecule…

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ADDERALL

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     ADDERALL® (amphetamine aspartate; amphetamine sulfate; dextroamphetamine saccharate; dextroamphetamine sulfate) AMPHETAMINES HAVE A HIGH POTENTIAL FOR ABUSE. ADMINISTRATION OF AMPHETAMINES FOR PROLONGED PERIODS OF TIME MAY LEAD TO DRUG DEPENDENCE AND MUST BE AVOIDED. PARTICULAR ATTENTION SHOULD BE PAID TO THE POSSIBILITY OF SUBJECTS OBTAINING AMPHETAMINES FOR NON-THERAPEUTIC USE OR DISTRIBUTION TO OTHERS, AND THE DRUGS SHOULD BE PRESCRIBED OR DISPENSED SPARINGLY. MISUSE OF AMPHETAMINE MAY CAUSE SUDDEN DEATH AND SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR ADVERSE EVENTS. DRUG DESCRIPTION What are the possible side effects of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine (Adderall, Adderall XR)? Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop using amphetamine and dextroamphetamine and call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects: fast, pounding, or uneven heartbeats; feeling light-headed, fainting; increased blood pressure (severe headache, blurred vision, trouble concentrating,… Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Adderall » A single-entity amphetamine product combining the neutral sulfate salts of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine, with the dextro isomer of amphetamine saccharate and d, l-amphetamine aspartate monohydrate. EACH TABLET CONTAINS: 5 mg 7.5 mg 10 mg 12.5 mg…

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Medrol®

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(methylprednisolone) Tablets, USP DRUG DESCRIPTION What are the possible side effects of methylprednisolone (Medrol, Medrol Dosepak, MethylPREDNISolone Dose Pack)? Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects: problems with your vision; swelling, rapid weight gain, feeling short of breath; severe depression, unusual thoughts or behavior, seizure (convulsions); bloody or tarry stools,… Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Medrol » MEDROL Tablets contain methylprednisolone which is a glucocorticoid. Glucocorticoids are adrenocortical steroids, both naturally occurring and synthetic, which are readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Methylprednisolone occurs as a white to practically white, odorless, crystalline powder. It is sparingly soluble in alcohol, in dioxane, and in methanol, slightly soluble in acetone, and in chloroform, and very slightly soluble in ether. It is practically insoluble in water. The chemical name for methylprednisolone is pregna – 1,4 – diene – 3,20-dione, 11, 17, 21-trihydroxy-6-methyl-, (6α, 11β)-and the molecular weight is 374.48. The structural for-mula is represented below:   Each MEDROL Tablet for oral administration contains 2 mg, 4…

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Medrol®

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(methylprednisolone) Tablets, USP DRUG DESCRIPTION What are the possible side effects of methylprednisolone (Medrol, Medrol Dosepak, MethylPREDNISolone Dose Pack)? Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects: problems with your vision; swelling, rapid weight gain, feeling short of breath; severe depression, unusual thoughts or behavior, seizure (convulsions); bloody or tarry stools,… Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Medrol » MEDROL Tablets contain methylprednisolone which is a glucocorticoid. Glucocorticoids are adrenocortical steroids, both naturally occurring and synthetic, which are readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Methylprednisolone occurs as a white to practically white, odorless, crystalline powder. It is sparingly soluble in alcohol, in dioxane, and in methanol, slightly soluble in acetone, and in chloroform, and very slightly soluble in ether. It is practically insoluble in water. The chemical name for methylprednisolone is pregna – 1,4 – diene – 3,20-dione, 11, 17, 21-trihydroxy-6-methyl-, (6α, 11β)-and the molecular weight is 374.48. The structural for-mula is represented below:   Each MEDROL Tablet for oral administration contains 2 mg, 4…

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Macrobid®

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  (nitrofurantoin monohydrate/macrocrystals) Capsules To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Macrobid and other antibacterial drugs, Macrobid should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. DRUG DESCRIPTION What are the possible side effects of nitrofurantoin (Furadantin, Macrobid, Macrodantin)? Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects: diarrhea that is watery or bloody; shortness of breath, running out of breath easily; fever, chills, cough, chest pain; nausea, stomach pain, low fever, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored… Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Macrobid » Nitrofurantoin is an antibacterial agent specific for urinary tract infections. The Macrobid® brand of nitrofurantoin is a hard gelatin capsule shell containing the equivalent of 100 mg of nitrofurantoin in the form of 25 mg of nitrofurantoin macrocrystals and 75 mg of nitrofurantoin monohydrate. The chemical name of nitrofurantoin macrocrystals is 1-[[[5-nitro-2-furanyl]methylene]amino]-2,4-imidazolidinedione. The chemical structure is the following:   Molecular Weight: 238.16 The chemical…

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Quinapril

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What are the possible side effects of quinapril (Accupril)? Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; severe stomach pain; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects: feeling light-headed, fainting; urinating more or less than usual, or not at all; fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms; pale skin, easy bruising or bleeding; severe blistering, peeling, and red… Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Accupril » ACCUPRIL® (quinapril hydrochloride) is the hydrochloride salt of quinapril, the ethyl ester of a non-sulfhydryl, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, quinapril. Quinapril hydrochloride is chemically described as [3S-[2[R*(R*)], 3R*]]-2-[2-[[1-(ethoxycarbonyl)-3-phenylpropyl]amino]-1-oxopropyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-3-isoquinolinecarboxylic acid, monohydrochloride. Its empirical formula is C25H30N2O5 •HCl and its structural formula is: Quinapril hydrochloride is a white to off-white amorphous powder that is freely soluble in aqueous solvents. ACCUPRIL tablets contain 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, or 40 mg of quinapril for oral administration. Each tablet also contains candelilla wax, crospovidone, gelatin, lactose, magnesium carbonate, magnesium stearate, synthetic red iron oxide, and titanium dioxide. Last reviewed on RxList: 10/9/2009 Accupril Indications & Dosage INDICATIONS Hypertension ACCUPRIL is…

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LUPRON®

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(leuprolide acetate) Injection DRUG DESCRIPTION What are the possible side effects of leuprolide (Eligard, Lupron, Lupron Depot, Lupron Depot-Gyn, Lupron Depot-Ped)? Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as: bone pain; swelling, rapid weight gain; pain, burning, stinging, bruising, or redness where the medication was injected; feeling like you might pass out; painful… Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Lupron » Leuprolide acetate is a synthetic nonapeptide analog of naturally occurring gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH or LH-RH). The analog possesses greater potency than the natural hormone. The chemical name is 5- oxo -L-prolyl-L-histidyl-L-tryptophyl-L-seryl-L-tyrosyl-D-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-arginyl-N-ethyl-L-prolinamide acetate (salt) with the following structural formula:   LUPRON INJECTION is a sterile, aqueous solution intended for daily subcutaneous injection. It is available in a 2.8 mL multiple dose vial containing leuprolide acetate (5 mg/mL), sodium chloride, USP (6.3 mg/mL) for tonicity adjustment, benzyl alcohol, NF as a preservative (9 mg/mL), and water for injection, USP. The pH may have been adjusted with sodium hydroxide, NF and/or acetic acid, NF. Last reviewed…

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GAVISCON

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Active Ingredients: Sodium alginate 1000mg and Potassium bicarbonate 200mg per 10ml dose. Also contains methyl and propyl hydroxybenzoates. Indications: Gaviscon Advance Aniseed Suspension Treatment of symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux such as acid regurgitation, heartburn, indigestion occurring due to the reflux of stomach contents, for instance, after gastric surgery, as a result of hiatus hernia, during pregnancy, accompanying reflux oesophagitis, including symptoms of laryngopharyngeal reflux such as hoarseness and other voice disorders, sore throats and cough. Can also be used to treat the symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux during concomitant treatment with or following withdrawal of acid suppressing therapy. Gaviscon Advance Peppermint Flavour Treatment of symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux such as acid regurgitation, heartburn and indigestion (related to reflux), for example, following meals, or during pregnancy, or in patients with symptoms related to reflux oesophagitis.

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Symbicort ®

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Symbicort ® http://hcp.symbicort.com For the first time, adults aged 18 years and older, suffering from asthma are able to control and relieve their symptoms using a single inhaler. Symbicort, (budesonide/formoterol) Maintenance And Reliever Therapy. Symbicort SMART studies demonstrated that patients using this new approach took no extra inhaled steroids and needed less oral steroids compared to other traditional asthma treatment approaches.(complete resources click here) Symbicort® (budesonide/formoterol) is a combination formulation containing Pulmicort® (budesonide), an anti-inflammatory corticosteroid, and Oxis® (formoterol), a rapid-acting and long-lasting bronchodilator. Symbicort is delivered as an inhalation powder via a single inhaler, the Symbicort Turbuhaler®, in one of two doses: 80/4.5 mcg/inhalation or 160/4.5 mcg/inhalation. Asthma Symbicort is indicated in the regular treatment of asthma, where use of a combination (inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta2-agonist) is appropriate: – patients not adequately controlled with inhaled corticosteroids and `as needed’ inhaled short-acting beta2-agonists or – patients already adequately controlled on both inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta2-agonists COPD Symptomatic treatment of patients with severe COPD (FEV1 <50% predicted normal) and a history of repeated exacerbations, who have significant symptoms despite regular therapy with long-acting bronchodilators Mode of Action Symbicort contains formoterol and budesonide, which have different modes of action and…

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Prozac ®

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History The work which eventually led to the discovery of fluoxetine began at Eli Lilly in 1970 as a collaboration between Bryan Molloy and Robert Rathbun. It was known at that time that the antihistamine diphenhydramine shows some antidepressant-like properties. 3-Phenoxy-3-phenylpropylamine, a compound structurally similar to diphenhydramine, was taken as a starting point, and Molloy synthesized dozens of its derivatives. Testing the physiological effects of these compounds in mice resulted in nisoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor currently widely used in biochemical experiments. Indications Fluoxetine has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of major depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa and panic disorder.[11] Fluoxetine was shown to be effective for depression in 6-week long double-blind controlled trials where it also alleviated anxiety and improved sleep. Fluoxetine was better than placebo for the prevention of depression recurrence when the patients, who originally responded to fluoxetine, were treated for a further 38 weeks. Efficacy of fluoxetine for geriatric as well as pediatric depression was also demonstrated in placebo-controlled trials.[11] Pharmacokinetics 3 dimensional representation of the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP2D6. CYP2D6 is responsible for converting fluoxetine to its only active metabolite, norfluoxetine.[17] Both drugs are also potent inhibitors of CYP2D6.[18] The…

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Avastin ®

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Bevacizumab Indications Avastin is a vascular endothelial growth factor-specific angiogenesis inhibitor indicated for the treatment of: – Metastatic colorectal cancer, with intravenous 5-fluorouracil–based chemotherapy for first- or second-line treatment. – Non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer, with carboplatin and paclitaxel for first line treatment of unresectable, locally advanced, recurrent or metastatic disease. – Metastatic breast cancer, with paclitaxel for treatment of patients who have not received chemotherapy for metastatic HER2-negative breast cancer. Effectiveness based on improvement in progression-free survival. No data available demonstrating improvement in disease-related symptoms or survival with Avastin. – Not indicated for disease progression following anthracycline and taxane chemotherapy administered for metastatic disease. – Glioblastoma, as a single agent for patients with progressive disease following prior therapy. – Effectiveness based on improvement in objective response rate. No data available demonstrating improvement in disease-related symptoms or survival with Avastin. – Metastatic renal cell carcinoma with interferon alfa BOXED Warnings and Additional Important Safety Information People receiving Avastin may experience side effects. In clinical trials, some people treated with Avastin experienced serious and sometimes fatal side effects, including: Gastrointestinal (GI) perforation: Treatment with Avastin can result in the development of a potentially serious side effect called GI perforation, which is…

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Insulin aspart ®

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Novo Nordisk Insulin aspart (marketed by Novo Nordisk as “NovoLog/NovoRapid”) is a fast acting insulin analogue. It was created through recombinant DNAproline, is substituted with an aspartic acid residue. This analogue has increased charge repulsion, which prevents the formation of hexamers, to create a faster acting insulin. The sequence was inserted into the yeast genome, and the yeast expressed the insulin analogue, which was then harvested from a bioreactor. The components of insulin aspart are as follows: Metal ion – zinc (19.6 ug/mL) Buffer – disodium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (1.25 mg/mL) Preservative – m-cresol (1.72 mg/mL) and phenol (1.50 mg/mL) Isotonicity agent – glycerin (16 mg/mL) and sodium chloride (0.58 mg/mL). The pH of insulin aspart is 7.2-7.6. According to JDRF, insulin aspart was approved for marketing in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration in June 2000. Can be used in CSII pumps and Flexpen, Novopen delivery devices for subcutaneous injection. Additionally, it can be used with an injection port such as the I-port. The onset of action is approximately 15 minutes, the peak action is reached in 45-90 minutes, and the duration is 3-5 hours. However, it should be noted that as with all insulin, these…

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Zithromax ®

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Click here to add comment Zithromax is one of the world’s best-selling antibiotics,[1] and is derived from erythromycin; however, it differs chemically from erythromycin in that a methyl-substituted nitrogen atom is incorporated into the lactone ring, thus making the lactone ring 15-membered. Azithromycin is used to treat or prevent certain bacterial infections, most often those causing middle ear infections, tonsillitis, throat infections, laryngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, Typhoid, and sinusitis. In recent years it has primarily been used to prevent bacterial infections in infants and those with weaker immune systems. It is also effective against certain urinary tract infections and venereal diseases, such as non-gonococcal urethritis, chlamydia, gonorrhea and cervicitis. Recent studies have also indicated it to be effective against late-onset asthma, but these findings are controversial and not widely accepted.[ History A team of researchers at the Croatian pharmaceutical company Pliva, Gabrijela Kobrehel, Gorjana Radobolja-Lazarevski and Zrinka TamburaÅ¡ev led by Dr. Slobodan Đokić, discovered azithromycin in 1980. It was patented in 1981, and was later found by Pfizer’s scientists while going through patent documents. In 1986 Pliva and Pfizer signed a licensing agreement which gave Pfizer exclusive rights for the sale of azithromycin in Western Europe and the United States. Pliva…

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Coumadin ®

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Bristol-myers squibb INDICATIONS: COUMADIN® (Warfarin Sodium) is indicated: o        For the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, and pulmonary embolism. o        For the prophylaxis and/or treatment of the thromboembolic complications associated with atrial fibrillation and/or cardiac valve replacement. o        To reduce the risk of death, recurrent myocardial infarction, and thromboembolic events such as stroke or systemic embolization after myocardial infarction. IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION: WARNING: BLEEDING RISK Warfarin sodium can cause major or fatal bleeding. Bleeding is more likely to occur during the starting period and with a higher dose (resulting in a higher INR). Risk factors for bleeding include high intensity of anticoagulation (INR>4.0), age ≥65, highly variable INRs, history of gastrointestinal bleeding, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, serious heart disease, anemia, malignancy, trauma, renal insufficiency, concomitant drugs (see PRECAUTIONS), and long duration of warfarin therapy. Regular monitoring of INR should be performed on all treated patients. Those at high risk of bleeding may benefit from more frequent INR monitoring, careful dose adjustment to desired INR, and a shorter duration of therapy. Patients should be instructed about prevention measures to minimize risk of bleeding and to report immediately to physicians signs and symptoms of bleeding (see PRECAUTIONS: Information for…

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Natrilix ®

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Servier Indapamide is a non-thiazide sulphonamide diuretic drug marketed by Servier, generally used in the treatment of hypertension, as well as decompensated cardiac failure. The US trade name for indapamide is Lozol.[1] Indapamide is marketed as Natrilix outside of the US . Combination preparations with perindopril (an ACE inhibitor antihypertensive) are also available. It is described as a thiazide-like diuretic.[2] Form and composition Indapamide is available generically as 1.25 mg and 2.5 mg non-scored tablets.[3] Indications Hypertension and edema due to congestive heart failure. Indapamide has been proven in the HYVET trial to reduce stroke and all cause mortality when given with or without perindopril to people over the age of 80 for the treatment of hypertension. Dosage and administration The adult dosage is 1.25 to 5 mg by mouth once daily usually in the morning. Contraindications Indapamide is contraindicated in known hypersensitivity to sulfonamides, severe renal failure, hepatic encephalopathy or severe hepatic failure and hypokalemia (low blood potassium levels). There is insufficient safety data to recommend indapamide use in pregnancy or breastfeeding. Interactions Caution is advised in the combination of indapamide with lithium and nonantiarrhythmic drugs causing wave burst arrhythmia (astemizole, bepridil, IV erythromycin, halofantrine, pentamidine, sultopride, terfenadine, vincamine)….

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Tramadol ®

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Grünenthal GmbH Click here to add coment Tramadol (Ultram, Tramal is a centrally-acting analgesic, used for treating moderate to moderately severe pain. Tramadol was developed by the German pharmaceutical company Grünenthal GmbH in the late 1970s.[1][2] Tramadol possesses agonist actions at the μ-opioid receptor and affects reuptake at the noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. Tramadol is a compound with mild and delayed μ-agonist activity. Tramadol is a synthetic stripped-down piperidine-analog of the phenantherane alkaloid CodeineOpioid and also a pro-drug (Codeine is metabolized to Morphine, Tramadol is converted to M-1 aka O-desmethyltramadol). Opioids are chemical compounds which act upon one or more of the human opiate receptors (the euphoria, addictive nature and respiratory depression are mainly caused by the Mu(μ) 1 and 2 receptor. The opioid agonistic effect of Tramadol and its major metabolite(s) are almost exclusively mediated by the substance’s action at the μ-receptor. This characteristic distinguishes Tramadol from many other substances (including Morphine) of the opioid drug class, which generally do not possess Tramadol’s degree of subtype selectivity. and, as such, is an Uses Tramadol is used similarly to Codeine, to treat moderate to moderately severe pain and most types of neuralgia, including trigeminal neuralgia.[6] Another popular use of Tramadol…

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Clexane ®

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Enoxaparin is a low molecular weight heparin marketed as Lovenox or Clexane. It is used to prevent and treat deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, and is given as a subcutaneous injection (by a health care provider or the patient). Its use is evolving in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Enoxaparin is manufactured by Sanofi-Aventis and is derived from the intestinal mucosa of pigs. Indications In the UK and Australia, enoxaparin is approved for six indications: The prophylaxis of thromboembolism disorders of venous origin, in particular those which may be associated with orthopaedic surgery. There is limited evidence supporting the use of enoxaparin in orthoapedic patients[1], although evidence is reasonable for colorectal patients[2] The prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in medical patients bedridden due to acute illness. The treatment of venous thromboembolism disease (VTED) presenting with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE) or both. The treatment of unstable angina (UA) and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction (NQMI), administered concurrently with aspirin. The prevention of thrombus formation in the extracorporeal circulation during haemodialysis. The prevention of thrombus formation during episodes of lone Atrial Fibrillation, administered concurrently with aspirin (in the absence of long term blood thinning treatment with warfarin). In the United States,…

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Interferon ®

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Interferons (IFNs) are proteins made and released by the cells of most vertebrates in response to the presence of pathogens — such as viruses, bacteria, or parasitestumor cells. They allow communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that eradicate pathogens or tumors. IFNs belong to the large class of glycoproteins known as cytokines. Although they are named after their ability to “interfere” with viral replication within host cells, IFNs have other functions: they activate immune cells, such as natural killer cells and macrophages; they increase recognition of infection or tumor cells by up-regulating antigen presentation to T lymphocytes; and they increase the ability of uninfected host cells to resist new infection by virus. Certain host symptoms, such as aching muscles and fever, are related to the production of IFNs during infection. About ten distinct IFNs have been identified in mammals; seven of these have been described for humans. They are typically divided among three IFN classes: Type I IFN, Type II IFN, and Type III IFN. IFNs belonging to all IFN classes are very important for fighting viral infections. — or Types of interferon Based on the type of receptor through which they signal, human…

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Xyntha ®

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Wyeth antihemophilic factor antihemophilic factor (recombinant) (ant ee hee moe FIL ik FAK tor (ree KOM bin ant)) Brand Names: Advate rAHF-PFM, Helixate FS, Kogenate FS, Kogenate FS with Bioset, Recombinate, Refacto, Xyntha Xyntha is used for: Preventing and controlling bleeding in patients with hemophilia A (factor VIII deficiency), including in surgical settings. Xyntha is a clotting factor. It works by increasing the amount of clotting factor VIII in the blood, which helps the blood to clot normally. Do NOT use Xyntha if: you are allergic to any ingredient in Xyntha Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if this applies to you. Before using Xyntha : Some medical conditions may interact with Xyntha . Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you: if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances, including polysorbate 80 and hamster proteins Some MEDICINES MAY INTERACT with Xyntha . However, no specific interactions with Xyntha are known at this time. Ask your health care…

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Provenge ®

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The term cancer vaccine refers to a vaccine that either prevents infections with cancer-causing viruses, treats existing cancer or prevents the development of cancer in certain high risk individuals. (The ones that treat existing cancer are known as therapeutic cancer vaccines.) Some cancers, such as cervical cancer and some liver cancers, are caused by viruses, and traditional vaccines against those viruses, such as HPV vaccine and Hepatitis B vaccine, will prevent those cancers. (These anti-viral vaccines are not further discussed in the rest of this article) Scientists have also been trying to develop vaccines against existing cancers. But there is no such vaccine that can cure a person having cancer. Some researchers believe that cancer cells routinely arise and are destroyed by the healthy immune system[1]; cancer forms when the immune system fails to destroy them[2]. One approach to cancer vaccination is to separate proteins from cancer cells and immunize cancer patients against those proteins, in the hope of stimulating an immune reaction that would kill the cancer cells. Therapeutic cancer vaccines are being developed for the treatment of breast, lung, colon, skin, kidney, prostate, and other cancers.[3]. In a phase III trial of follicular lymphoma (a type of non-Hodgkin’s…

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Lamictal ®

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Lamotrigine (pronounced /ləˈmɪktÉ™l/) by GlaxoSmithKline) is an anticonvulsant drug used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. For epilepsy it is used to treat partial seizures, primary and secondary tonic-clonic seizures, and seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Like many other anticonvulsant medications, Lamotrigine also seems to acts as an effective mood stabilizer, and in fact has been the only FDA approved drug for this purpose since lithium, a drug approved almost 30 years earlier. It is approved for the maintenance treatment of bipolar type I. Chemically unrelated to other anticonvulsants (due to Lamotrigine being a Phenyltriazine), lamotrigine has relatively few side-effects and does not require blood monitoring in monotherapy. The exact way lamotrigine works is unknown. Some think that it is a sodium channel blocker, though it is interesting to note that lamotrigine shares very few side-effects with other, unrelated anticonvulsants known to inhibit sodium channels, (e.g. Oxcarbazepine), which may suggest that lamotrigine has a different mechanism of action[citation needed]. The drug information provided at the time of prescription notes that “it is thought to work by restoring the balance of certain natural substances (neurotransmitters) in the brain.”[1] Lamotrigine is inactivated by hepatic glucuronidation. U.S. Food and Drug Administration…

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Tiazac ®

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Diltiazem Diltiazem is a non-DHP member of the group of drugs known as benzothiazepines, which are a class of calcium channel blockers, used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, and some types of arrhythmia. It is also an effective preventive medication for migraine. It is a class 3 anti-anginal drug, and a class IV antiarrhythmic. It is a common adulterant of cocaine seized in the UK [1], despite reducing cocaine cravings in rats (see below). It incites very minimal reflex sympathetic changes. It is based upon a 1,4-thiazepine ring. Diltiazem is metabolized by and acts as an inhibitor of the CYP3A4 enzyme. Mechanism Diltiazem is a potent vasodilator, increasing blood flow and variably decreasing the heart rate via strong depression of A-V node conduction. Its pharmacological activity is somewhat similar to verapamil.[2] Potent vasodilator of coronary vessels. Vasodilator of peripheral vessels. This reduces peripheral resistance and afterload. Negative inotropic effect. Diltiazem causes a modest decrease in heart muscle contractility and reduces myocardium oxygen consumption. Negative chronotropic effect. Diltiazem causes a modest lowering of heart rate. This effect is due to slowing of the SA (sinoatrial) node. It results in reduced myocardium oxygen consumption. Negative dromotropic effect. By slowing conduction…

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Allopurinol ®

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Allopurinol is a drug used primarily to treat hyperuricemia (excess uric acid in blood plasma) and its complications, including chronic gout.[1] Mechanism of action Allopurinol is a structural isomer of hypoxanthine (a naturally occurring purine in the body) and is an enzyme inhibitor, inhibiting xanthine oxidase.[1] Xanthine oxidase is responsible for the successive oxidation of hypoxanthine and xanthine resulting in the production of uric acid, the product of human purine metabolism.[1] In addition to blocking uric acid production, inhibition of xanthine oxidase causes an increase in hypoxanthine and xanthine, which are converted to closely related purine ribotidesadenosine and guanosine monophosphates. Increased levels of these ribotides causes feedback inhibition of amidophosphoribosyl transferase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme of purine biosynthesis. Allopurinol therefore decreases both uric acid formation and purine synthesis. Uses The primary use of allopurinol is to treat hyperuricemia (excess uric acid in blood plasma) and its complications. Allopurinol does not alleviate acute attacks of gout, but is useful in chronic gout to prevent future attacks. Similarly, allopurinol commonly is used as prophylaxis with chemotherapeutic treatments, which can rapidly produce severe hyperuricemia. Other established indications for allopurinol therapy include ischemic reperfusion injury, kidney stones with a uric acid component (uric…

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Norepinephrine

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Noradrenaline (BAN) (abbreviated NA or NAd) or norepinephrine (INN) (abbreviated norepi or NE) is a catecholamine with multiple roles including as a hormone and a neurotransmitter.[2] As a stress hormone, norepinephrine affects parts of the brain where attention and responding actions are controlled. Along with epinephrine, norepinephrine also underlies the fight-or-flight response, directly increasing heart rate, triggering the release of glucose from energy stores, and increasing blood flow to skeletal muscle. Norepinephrine also has a neurotransmitter role when released diffusely in the brain as an antiinflammatory agent.[3] When norepinephrine acts as a drug it increases blood pressure by increasing vascular tone through α-adrenergic receptor activation. The resulting increase in vascular resistance triggers a compensatory reflex that overcomes its direct stimulatory effects on the heart, called the baroreceptor reflex, which results in a drop in heart rate called reflex bradycardia. Norepinephrine is synthesized from dopamine by dopamine β-hydroxylase.[4] It is released from the adrenal medulla into the blood as a hormone, and is also a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and sympathetic nervous system where it is released from noradrenergic neurons. The actions of norepinephrine are carried out via the binding to adrenergic receptors. Etymology The term “norepinephrine” is derived…

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Duphaston ®

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Dydrogesterone is a progestogen hormone. The brand name is Duphaston and manufactured by Solvay Pharmaceuticals. Dydrogesterone was first introduced to the market in 1961, and is currently approved in over 100 countries worldwide. It has an estimated cumulative exposure of more than 28 million patients. Dydrogesterone is a potent, orally active progestogen indicated in a wide variety of gynaecological conditions. Although similar in molecular structure and pharmacological effects to endogenous progesterone. It is orally active at far lower doses. Its freedom from oestrogenic, androgenic, anabolic, corticoid and other undesirable hormonal effects gives it additional benefits over most other synthetic progestogens. The therapeutic use of dydrogesterone is closely related to its physiological action on the neuro-endocrine control of ovarian function, as well as on the endometrium. As such, it is indicated in all cases of relative or absolute endogeneous progesterone deficiency. Dydrogesterone has proven effective in the following conditions: menstrual disorders infertility threatened and habitual abortion endometriosis premenstrual syndrome Dydrogesterone has also been registered as hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to counteract the negative effects of unopposed oestrogen on the endometrium. Dydrogesterone is safe and well-tolerated. The incidence of side-effects is remarkably low. Indications Dydrogesterone In Menstrual Disorders Dysmenorrhoea Primary or essential…

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Glucophage ®

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Metformin (INN) (pronounced /mÉ›tˈfÉ”rmɪn/; originally sold as Glucophage) is an oral anti-diabetic drug in the biguanide class. It is the first-line drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, particularly in overweight and obese people and those with normal kidney function.[1][2][3] Evidence is also mounting for its efficacy in gestational diabetes, although safety concerns still preclude its widespread use in this setting. It is also used in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome and has been investigated for other diseases where insulin resistance may be an important factor. Pharmacokinetics Metformin has an oral bioavailability of 50–60% under fasting conditions, and is absorbed slowly.[95][96] Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) are reached within one to three hours of taking immediate-release metformin and four to eight hours with extended-release formulations.[95][96] The plasma protein binding of metformin is negligible, as reflected by its very high apparent volume of distribution (300–1000 L after a single dose). Steady state is usually reached in one or two days.[95] Metformin is not metabolized. It is cleared from the body by tubular secretion and excreted unchanged in the urine; metformin is undetectable in blood plasma within 24 hours of a single oral dose.[95][97] The average elimination half-life in plasma…

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Capoten ®

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Bristol-Myers Squibb Captopril (rINN) (pronounced /ˈkæptÉ™prɪl/) is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) used for the treatment of hypertension and some types of congestive heart failure. Captopril was the first ACE inhibitor developed and was considered a breakthrough both because of its novel mechanism of action and also because of the revolutionary development process. Captopril is commonly marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb under the trade name Capoten. Clinical use Captopril’s main uses are based on its vasodilatation and inhibition of some renal function activities. These benefits are most clearly seen in the following conditions: 1) Hypertension 2) Cardiac conditions such as post myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure 3) Preservation of kidney function in diabetic nephropathy Additionally, it has shown mood-elevating properties in some patients. This is consistent with the observation that animal screening models indicate putative antidepressant activity for this compound, although there has been one negative study. Formal clinical trials in depressed patients have not been reported.[1] It has also been investigated for use in the treatment of cancer.[2 Effectiveness for hypertension A 2004 study compared the effectiveness of captopril to a standardized extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa, a plant used to make Hibiscus tea and known to be effective…

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Xalatan ®

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Latanoprost manufactured by Pfizer For teatment of Glucoma Latanoprost (pronounced la-TA-noe-prost) ophthalmic solution is a topical medication used for controlling the progression of glaucoma or ocular hypertension by reducing intraocular pressure. It is a prostaglandin analogue that works by increasing the outflow of aqueous fluid from the eyes (through the uvealsclearal tract).[1] It is also known by the brand name of Xalatan manufactured by Pfizer. Annual sales are approximately $1.6 billion. The patent for latanoprost expires in 2011. Adverse reactions Possible side effects: •May cause reddening of the eyes (hyperemia) •May cause blurred vision; •May cause eyelid redness; •May permanently darken eyelashes; •May cause eye discomfort; •May eventually cause permanent darkening of the iris to brown (heterochromia); •May cause a temporary burning sensation during use. •May cause thickening of the eyelashes. •Rarely, herpes simplex keratitis. •A single case report links latanoprost use to the progression of keratoconus.[2] Glaucoma Glaucoma is a disease in which the optic nerve is damaged, leading to progressive, irreversible loss of vision. It is often, but not always, associated with increased pressure of the fluid in the eye.[1] The nerve damage involves loss of retinal ganglion cells in a characteristic pattern. There are many different sub-types…

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Tamoxifen

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Tamoxifen is an antagonist of the estrogen receptor in breast tissue. It has been the standard endocrine (anti-estrogen) therapy for hormone-positive early breast cancer in post-menopausal women, although aromatase inhibitors have been proposed.[1] Some breast cancer cells require estrogen to grow. Estrogen binds to and activates the estrogen receptor in these cells. Tamoxifen is metabolized into compounds that also bind to the estrogen receptor but do not activate it. Because of this competitive antagonism, tamoxifen acts like a key broken off in the lock that prevents any other key from being inserted, preventing estrogen from binding to its receptor. Hence breast cancer cell growth is blocked. Tamoxifen was discovered by ICI Pharmaceuticals[2] (now AstraZeneca) and is sold under the trade names Nolvadex, Istubal, and Valodex. However, the drug, even before its patent expiration, was and still is widely referred to by its generic name “tamoxifen.” Breast cancer treatment Bottle and pills of tamoxifen Tamoxifen is currently used for the treatment of both early and advanced ER+ (estrogen receptor positive) breast cancer in pre- and post-menopausal women.[3] Additionally, it is the most common hormone treatment for male breast cancer.[4] It is also approved by the FDA for the prevention of breast…

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Endoxan ®

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Cyclophosphamide IV drip Cyclophosphamide (the generic name for Endoxan), also known as cytophosphane, is a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent, from the oxazophorines group. An alkylating agent adds an alkyl group (CnH2n+1) to DNA. It attaches the alkyl group to the guanine base of DNA, at the number 7 nitrogen atom of the imidazole ring. It is used to treat various types of cancer and some autoimmune disorders. It is a “prodrug”; it is converted in the liver to active forms that have chemotherapeutic activity. Uses The main use of cyclophosphamide is together with other chemotherapy agents in the treatment of lymphomas, some forms of leukemia[2] and some solid tumors[3]. It is a chemotherapy drug that works by slowing or stopping cell growth. Cyclophosphamide also decreases the immune system’s response to various diseases and conditions. Therefore, it has been used in various non-neoplastic autoimmune diseases where disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) have been ineffective. For example, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with severe lupus nephritis[4] may respond to pulsed cyclophosphamide (in 2005, however, standard treatment for lupus nephritis changed to mycophenolic acid (MMF) from cyclophosphamide). Cyclophosphamide is also used to treat minimal change disease[5], severe rheumatoid arthritis[6], Wegener’s granulomatosis[7] (with trade name Cytoxan),…

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Botulinum toxin

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Botox Botulinum toxin Botulinum toxin is a medication and a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, and is known to be very toxic[1][2] with an LD50 of roughly 0.005�0.05 �g/kg making it the most toxic substance known to man. Despite its deadly toxic effect, it is sometimes used in very small doses to treat muscle spasms.[3] Popularly known by one of its trade names, Botox, botulinum toxin is now commonly used in various settings for cosmetic procedures.[3] History Justinus Kerner described botulinum toxin as a “sausage poison” and “fatty poison”,[4] as this bacterium often caused poisoning by growing in improperly handled or prepared meat products. It was Kerner, a physician, who first conceived a possible therapeutic use of botulinum toxin and coined the name botulism. (In Latin, botulus means “sausage.”) In 1897, Emile van Ermengem identified the bacterium Clostridium botulinum to be the producer of botulinum toxin.[5] In 1928, P. Tessmer Snipe and Hermann Sommer for the first time purified the toxin.[6] In 1949, Burgen’s group discovered that botulinum toxin blocks neuromuscular transmission. Therapeutic Research In the late 1960s Alan Scott, M.D., a San Francisco ophthalmologist, and Edward Schantz were the first to work on a standardized botulinum…

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Imuran ®

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Azathioprine immunosuppressant Manufactured by GSK is a drug that suppresses the immune system. Azathioprine is used in organ transplantation and autoimmune disease. Some of the autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis, pemphigus, Inflammatory Bowel Disease (such as Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative Colitis), multiple sclerosis, autoimmune hepatitis, atopic dermatitis and restrictive lung disease. Azathioprine interferes with the synthesis of purines (adenine and guanine), which is required for DNA synthesis. Fast-growing cells, including T-cells and B-cells, are particularly affected by the inhibition of purine synthesis. It is a pro-drug, converted in the body to the active metabolites 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and 6-thioinosinic acid. Azathioprine is produced by a number of generic manufacturers and as branded names (Azasan by Salix in the U.S., Imuran by GlaxoSmithKline in Canada and the U.S., Australia and UK, Azamun in Finland and Imurel in Scandinavia and France). History Azathioprine was first introduced into clinical practice by Sir Roy Calne, the British pioneer in transplantation. Following the work done by Sir Peter Medawar in discovering the immunological basis of rejection of transplanted tissues and organs, Calne introduced 6-mercaptopurine as an experimental immunosuppressant for kidney transplants cardiac transplantation. When azathioprine was discovered, he then introduced it as a less toxic replacement…

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Trastuzumab

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Herceptin � Trastuzumab (INN; trade name Herceptin) is a monoclonal antibody that interferes with the HER2/neu receptor. The HER receptors are proteins that are embedded in the cell membrane and communicate molecular signals from outside the cell to inside the cell, and turn genes on and off. The HER proteins regulate cell growth, survival, adhesion, migration, and differentiation�functions that are amplified or weakened in cancer cells. In some cancers, notably some breast cancers, HER2 is stuck in the “on” position, and causes breast cells to reproduce uncontrollably, causing breast cancer.[1] Antibodies are molecules from the immune system that bind selectively to different proteins. Trastuzumab is an antibody that binds selectively to the HER2 protein. When it binds to defective HER2 proteins, the HER2 protein no longer causes cells in the breast to reproduce uncontrollably. This increases the survival of people with cancer. However, cancers usually develop resistance to trastuzumab. The original studies of trastuzumab showed that it improved survival in late-stage (metastatic) breast cancer, but there is controversy over whether trastuzumab is effective in earlier stage breast cancer.[citation needed] Trastuzumab is also controversial because of its cost, as much as $100,000 per year[2], and while certain private insurance companies in…

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Rilutek ®

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Riluzole Riluzole is a drug used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It delays the onset of ventilator-dependence or tracheostomy in selected patients and may increase survival by approximately 3–5 months. It is marketed by sanofi-aventis with the brand name Rilutek. Riluzole preferentially blocks TTX sensitive sodium channels, which are associated with damaged neurons.[1] This reduces influx of calcium ions and indirectly prevents stimulation of glutamate receptors. Together with direct glutamate receptor blockade, the effect of the neurotransmitter glutamate on motor neurons is greatly reduced. However, the action of riluzole on glutamate receptors has been controversial, as no binding of the molecule has been shown on any known receptor.[2] In addition as its antiglutamate action is still detectable in the presence of sodium channel blockers, it is also uncertain whether or not it acts via this way. Rather, its potent glutamate uptake activator activity seems to mediate many of its effects. Studies of efficacy A Cochrane Library review states a 9% gain in the probability of surviving one year. In secondary analyses of survival at separate time points, there was a significant survival advantage with riluzole 100 mg at six, nine, 12 and 15 months, but not at three or 18…

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Nifedipine

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Adalat ® Nifedipine (brand names Adalat, Nifediac, Nifedical, and Procardia) is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. Its main uses are as an antianginal (especially in Prinzmetal’s angina) and antihypertensive, although a large number of other uses have recently been found for this agent, such as Raynaud’s phenomenon, premature labor, and painful spasms of the esophagus in cancer and tetanus patients. It is also commonly used for the small subset of pulmonary hypertension patients whose symptoms respond to calcium channel blockers. Dosing Nifedipine rapidly lowers blood pressure, and patients are commonly warned they may feel dizzy or faint after taking the first few doses. Tachycardia (fast heart rate) may occur as a reaction. These problems are much less frequent in the sustained-release preparations of nifedipine (such as Adalat OROS). A more novel release system is GITS (Gastro-Intestinal Therapeutic System), which – according to Bayer – provides 24-hour continuous release through an osmotic push system. Recent trials with GITS include INSIGHT (for blood pressure)[1] and ACTION (for angina).[2] Extended release formulations of nifedipine should be taken on an empty stomach, and patients are warned not to consume anything containing grapefruit or grapefruit juice, as they raise blood nifedipine levels. There are several…

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Ciprofloxacin

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Ciprofloxacin (INN) is a synthetic chemotherapeutic antibiotic of the fluoroquinolone drug class [2][3] It is a second-generation fluoroquinolone antibacterial. It kills bacteria by interfering with the enzymes that cause DNA to rewind after being copied, which stops DNA and protein synthesis. Ciprofloxacin is marketed worldwide with over three hundred different brand names. In the United States, Canada, and the UK, it is marketed as Baycip, Ciloxan, Ciflox, Cipro, Cipro XR, Cipro XL, Ciproxin and most recently, Proquin. In addition, ciprofloxacin is available as a generic drug under a variety of different brand names and is also available for limited use in veterinary medicine. Ciprofloxacin was first patented in 1983 by Bayer A.G. and subsequently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1987. Ciprofloxacin has 12 FDA-approved human uses and other veterinary uses, but it is often used for non-approved uses (off-label). Ciprofloxacin interacts with other drugs, herbal and natural supplements, and thyroid medications.[4] History: The patent history for ciprofloxacin makes reference to a 1982 European Patent (patent number 0049355), as well a German patent dated 21 January 1986. Bayer introduced ciprofloxacin in 1987 and was later approved by the U.S. FDA on 22 October 22 1987…

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Warfarin

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Warfarin (also known under the brand names Coumadin, Jantoven, Marevan, Lawarin, and Waran) is an anticoagulant. It was initially marketed as a pesticide against rats and mice and is still popular for this purpose, although more potent poisons such as brodifacoum have since been developed. A few years after its introduction, warfarin was found to be effective and relatively safe for preventing thrombosis and embolism (abnormal formation and migration of blood clots) in many disorders. It was approved for use as a medication in the early 1950s and has remained popular ever since; warfarin is the most widely prescribed anticoagulant drug in North America.[1] Despite its effectiveness, treatment with warfarin has several shortcomings. Many commonly used medications interact with warfarin, as do some foods, and its activity has to be monitored by frequent blood testing for the international normalized ratio (INR) to ensure an adequate yet safe dose is taken.[2] Warfarin is a synthetic derivative of dicoumarol, a 4-hydroxycoumarin-derived mycotoxin anticoagulant found in spoiled clover-based animal feeds. Dicoumarol, in turn, is derived from coumarin, a chemical found naturally in many plants (not to be confused with Coumadin, a brand name for warfarin). Coumarin itself has no effect on clotting, or…

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Methotrexate

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Methotrexate (rINN) (pronounced /mɛθɵˈtrɛkseɪt/), abbreviated MTX and formerly known as amethopterin, is an antimetabolite and antifolate drug used in treatment of cancer, autoimmune diseases and as an abortifacient in the induction of medical abortions. It acts by inhibiting the metabolism of folic acid. Methotrexate began to replace the more powerful and toxic antifolate aminopterin starting in the 1950s, and the two should not be confused. The drug was developed by Yellapragada Subbarao. History: In 1947, a team of researchers led by Sidney Farber showed that aminopterin, a chemical analogue of folic acid developed by Yellapragada Subbarao Lederle, could induce remission in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The development of folic acid analogues had been prompted by the discovery that the administration of folic acid worsened leukemia, and that a diet deficient in folic acid could, conversely, produce improvement; the mechanism of action behind these effects was still unknown at the time.[1] Other analogues of folic acid were in development, and by 1950, methotrexate (then known as amethopterin) was being proposed as a treatment for leukemia.[2] Animal studies published in 1956 showed that the therapeutic index of methotrexate was better than that of aminopterin, and clinical use of aminopterin was thus…

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Ventolin

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Salbutamol (INN) or albuterol (USAN) is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is marketed by GlaxoSmithKline as Ventolin, Aerolin or Ventorlin depending on the market; by Cipla as Asthalin; by Schering-Plough as Proventil and by Teva as ProAir. Salbutamol was the first selective Β2-receptor agonist to be marketed – in 1968. It was first sold by Allen & Hanburys under the brand name Ventolin. The drug was an instant success, and has been used for the treatment of asthma ever since.[1] Salbutamol sulfate is usually given by the inhaled route for direct effect on bronchial smooth muscle. This is usually achieved through a metered dose inhaler (MDI), nebulizer or other proprietary delivery devices (e.g. Rotahaler or Autohaler). In these forms of delivery, the maximal effect of Salbutamol can take place within five to twenty minutes of dosing, though some relief is immediately seen. Salbutamol can also be given orally as an inhalant or intravenously. Clinical use: Salbutamol is specifically indicated in the following conditions: •Acute asthma •Symptom relief during maintenance therapy of asthma and other conditions with reversible or irreversible airways obstruction (including COPD…

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Atenolol

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Atenolol (Tenormin) is a selective β1 receptor antagonist, a drug belonging to the group of beta blockers (sometimes written β-blockers), a class of drugs used primarily in cardiovascular diseases. Introduced in 1976, atenolol was developed as a replacement for propranolol in the treatment of hypertension. The chemical works by slowing down the heart and reducing its workload. Unlike propranolol, atenolol does not pass through the blood-brain barrier thus avoiding various central nervous system side effects.[1] Atenolol is one of the most widely used β-blockers in the United Kingdom and was once the first-line treatment for hypertension. The role for β-blockers in hypertension was downgraded in June 2006 in the United Kingdom to fourth-line, as they perform less appropriately or effectively than newer drugs, particularly in the elderly. Some evidence suggests that even in normal doses the most frequently used β-blockers carry an unacceptable risk of provoking type 2 diabetes. Indications: Atenolol can be used to treat cardiovascular diseases and conditions such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, arrhythmias, angina (chest pain) and to treat and reduce the risk of heart complications following myocardial infarction (heart attack). It is also used to treat the symptoms of Graves Disease, until antithyroid medication can…

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Tamiflu

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Oseltamivir (INN) (pronounced /ɒsəlˈtæmɨvɪər/) is an antiviral drug that slows the spread of influenza (flu) virus between cells in the body by stopping the virus from chemically cutting ties with its host cell—median time to symptom alleviation is reduced by 0.5–1 day[1]. The drug is sold under the trade name Tamiflu and is taken orally in capsules or as a suspension. It has been used to treat and prevent Influenzavirus A and Influenzavirus B infection in over 50 million people since 1999.[citation needed] Oseltamivir is a prodrug, a (relatively) inactive chemical which is converted into its active form by metabolic process after it is taken into the body. It was the first orally active neuraminidase inhibitor commercially developed.[citation needed] It was developed by C.U. Kim, W. Lew and X. Chen of US based Gilead Sciences and is currently marketed by Hoffmann–La Roche (Roche). In Japan, it is marketed by Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., which is more than 50% owned by Roche.[2][3] As of May 2010[update], the World Health Organization (WHO) reported 285 out of over 15,000 samples of the prevalent 2009 pandemic H1N1 (swine) flu tested worldwide have shown resistance to oseltamivir,[4] contrasting sharply with the 99.6% of the seasonal H1N1…

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Naproxen

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Naproxen sodium (INN) (pronounced /nəˈprɒksən/) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used for the reduction of pain, fever, inflammation and stiffness caused by conditions such as osteoarthritis, kidney stones, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, ankylosing spondylitis, menstrual cramps, tendinitis, bursitis, and the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. It works by inhibiting both the COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. Naproxen and naproxen sodium are marketed under various trade names including: Aleve, Anaprox, Antalgin, Feminax Ultra, Flanax, Inza, Midol Extended Relief, Miranax, Nalgesin, Naposin, Naprelan, Naprogesic, Naprosyn, Narocin, Proxen, Synflex, Xenobid. Naproxen was originally marketed as the prescription drug Naprosyn in 1976, and naproxen sodium was first marketed under the trade name Anaprox in 1980. It remains a prescription-only drug in much of the world. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of naproxen sodium as an over-the-counter (OTC) drug in 1994, where OTC preparations are sold under the trade name Aleve. In Australia, packets of 275 mg tablets of naproxen sodium are Schedule 2 Pharmacy Medicines, with a maximum daily dose of 5 tablets/1375 mg. In the UK, 250 mg tablets of naproxen were approved for OTC sale under the brand name Feminax Ultra in 2008, for the treatment…

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Flagyl

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Miconazole Miconazole is an imidazole antifungal agent, developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica, commonly applied topically to the skin or to mucus membranes to cure fungal infections. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a critical component of fungal cell membranes. It can also be used against certain species of Leishmania protozoa which are a type of unicellular parasite that also contain ergosterol in their cell membranes. In addition to its antifungal and antiparasitic actions, it also has some limited antibacterial properties. It is marketed in various formulations under various brand names. Miconazole is also used in Ektachrome film developing in the final rinse of the Kodak E-6 process and similar Fuji CR-56 process, replacing formaldehyde. Fuji Hunt also includes miconazole as a final rinse additive in their formulation of the process C-41RA rapid access color negative developing process. Indications Miconazole is mainly used externally for the treatment of athlete’s foot, ringworm and jock itch. Internal application is used for oral or vaginal thrush (yeast infection). In addition the oral gel may also be used for the lip disorder angular cheilitis. It has an advantage over nystatin in the treatment of neonatal oral thrush in that the latter is only licensed…

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Lipitor

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Atorvastatin (INN) (pronounced /əˌtɔrvəˈstætən/), sold by Pfizer under the trade name Lipitor, is a member of the drug class known as statins, used for lowering blood cholesterol. It also stabilizes plaque and prevents strokes through anti-inflammatory and other mechanisms. Like all statins, atorvastatin works by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, an enzyme found in liver tissue that plays a key role in production of cholesterol in the body. Atorvastatin was first synthesized in 1985 by Bruce Roth while working at Parke-Davis Warner-Lambert Company (now Pfizer). With 2008 sales of US$12.4 billion, Lipitor was the top-selling branded pharmaceutical in the world.[1] US patent protection is scheduled to expire in June 2011.[2][3] However, Pfizer made an agreement with Ranbaxy Laboratories to delay the generic launch in the US until November 2011.[1]    Clinical use FDA approved indications Hypercholesterolemia[4] (heterozygous familial and nonfamilial) and mixed dyslipidemia (Fredrickson types IIa and IIb) to reduce total cholesterol, LDL-C,[5] apo-B,[6] Triglycerides[7] levels, and CRP[8] as well as increase HDL levels. Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia[4] in pediatric patients Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia[4][9] Hypertriglyceridemia (Fredrickson Type IV) Primary dysbetalipoproteinemia (Fredrickson Type III) It has also been used in the treatment of combined hyperlipidemia.[10] Prophylaxis for myocardial infarction, stroke, unstable angina,[11][12] and revascularization.*prophylaxis…

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(atenolol) Tablet

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TENORMIN DRUG DESCRIPTION What are the possible side effects of atenolol (Tenormin)? Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects: slow or uneven heartbeats; feeling light-headed, fainting; feeling short of breath, even with mild exertion; swelling of your ankles or feet; nausea, stomach pain, low fever, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored… Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Tenormin » TENORMIN® (atenolol), a synthetic, beta1-selective (cardioselective) adrenoreceptor blocking agent, may be chemically described as benzeneacetamide, 4 -[2′-hydroxy-3′-[(1- methylethyl) amino] propoxy]-. The molecular and structural formulas are:   C14H22N2O3 Atenolol (free base) has a molecular weight of 266. It is a relatively polar hydrophilic compound with a water solubility of 26.5 mg/ mL at 37°C and a log partition coefficient (octanol/water) of 0.23. It is freely soluble in 1N HCl (300 mg/mL at 25°C) and less soluble in chloroform (3 mg/mL at 25°C). TENORMIN is available as 25, 50 and 100 mg tablets for oral administration. Inactive Ingredients: Magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone, sodium starch glycolat…

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Astelin

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® (azelastine hydrochloride) Nasal Spray, 137 mcg For Intranasal Use Only DRUG DESCRIPTION What are the possible side effects of azelastine nasal (Astelin, Astepro)? Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop using azelastine and call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects: bronchospasm (shortness of breath, tightness in chest, wheezing); or fast or uneven heartbeats. Less serious side effects may include: a bitter taste in your… Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Astelin » Astelin® (azelastine hydrochloride) Nasal Spray, 137 micrograms (mcg), is an antihistamine formulated as a metered-spray solution for intranasal administration. Azelastine hydrochloride occurs as a white, almost odorless, crystalline powder with a bitter taste. It has a molecular weight of 418.37. It is sparingly soluble in water, methanol, and propylene glycol and slightly soluble in ethanol, octanol, and glycerine. It has a melting point of about 225°C and the pH of a saturated solution is between 5.0 and 5.4. Its chemical name is (±)-1-(2H)- phthalazinone,4-[(4-chlorophenyl) methyl]-2-(hexahydro-1- methyl-1H-azepin-4-yl)-, monohydrochloride. Its molecular formula is C22H24CIN3O•HCl with the following chemical structure:…

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ARICEPT

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Aricept Drug Description  (donepezil hydrochloride) Tablet DRUG DESCRIPTION What are the possible side effects of donepezil (Aricept, Aricept ODT)? Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop using donepezil and call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects: black, bloody, or tarry stools; coughing up blood or vomit that looks like blood or coffee grounds; painful or difficult urination; seizure (black-out or convulsions); Less… Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Aricept » ARICEPT (donepezil hydrochloride) is a reversible inhibitor of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, known chemically as (±)-2, 3-dihydro-5, 6-dimethoxy2-[[1-(phenylmethyl)-4-piperidinyl]methyl]-1H-inden-1-one hydrochloride. Donepezil hydrochloride is commonly referred to in the pharmacological literature as E2020. It has an empirical formula of C24H29NO3HCl and a molecular weight of 415.96. Donepezil hydrochloride is a white crystalline powder and is freely soluble in chloroform, soluble in water and in glacial acetic acid, slightly soluble in ethanol and in acetonitrile and practically insoluble in ethyl acetate and in n-hexane.   ARICEPT is available for oral administration in film-coated tablets containing 5, 10, or 23 mg of donepezil hydrochloride. Inactive…

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مادة الهيدروكينون هي الماده الاساسيه الموجوده الآن في اغلب الكريمات وقد حلت محل الزئبق بعد اكتشاف انه يسبب اتلاف للجلد والمخ ويؤدي للسرطان وبالرغم من ذلك فان الهيدروكينون ليس افضل منه بكثير كانت النسبه المسموح بها هي 2% الا ان بريطانيا قد منعتها تماما في يناير 2001 يعمل الهيدرو كينون من خلال وقف انتاج الميلانين وهي ماده موجوده في الجلد والتي تعطيه اللون الاسمر عند بداية استخدام الكريم الحاوي علي الهيدروكينون يشعر المستخدم ان البشره قد تفتحت بالفعل الا انه عند التعرض للشمس يعطي مفعولا عكسيا مؤديا الي زياده في الاسمرار والبقع السوداء مما يدفع المستخدم لزيادة الاستخدام الاستخدام لفترات طويله يؤدي الي حدوث بقع داكنه وآلام والتهابات بالجلد وظهور حب الشباب بالضافه الي امكانية حدوث سرطان الجلد علي المدي الطويل كما تحدث اضطرابات في الكبد نتيجة امتصاص الماده من الجلد وفي حين ان الدول الاوربيه قد منعت استخدام الهيدروكينون الا انها مازالت تصدره لدول افريقيا وآسيا كما ان الكريمات المحتويه علي الهيدروكينون تدعي ان النسبه هي 2% الا ان بالتحليل المعملي وجد انها تفوق ذلك بكثير وقد تصل للضعف احيانا ثم ان كثير من الكريمات المفتحه للبشره لا يعلن من الاصل عن وجود هيدروكينون ويدعي احتوائه علي مادة ال(Allantoin) الحاميه ضد اشعة الشمس الضاره في حين ان هذه الماده…

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Antivert

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Antivert User Reviews >>   Drug Description Antivert Drug Description   ANTIVERT® (meclizine HCl) Tablets/12.5 mg ANTIVERT®/25 (meclizine HCl) Tablets/25 mg ANTIVERT®/50 (meclizine HCl) Tablets/50 mg DRUG DESCRIPTION What are the possible side effects of meclizine (Antivert, Bonine, Dramamine II, D-Vert)? Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Less serious side effects may include: blurred vision; dry mouth; constipation; or dizziness, drowsiness. This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Tell your doctor about any unusual or bothersome side effect. You may report side… Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Antivert » Chemically, Antivert® (meclizine HCl) is 1-(p-chloro-α-phenylbenzyl)-4-(m-methylbenzyl) piperazine dihydrochloride monohydrate.   Inert ingredients for the tablets are: dibasic calcium phosphate; magnesium stearate; polyethylene glycol; starch; sucrose. The 12.5 mg tablets also contain: Blue 1. The 25 mg tablets also contain: Yellow 6 Lake; Yellow 10 Lake. The 50 mg tablets also contain: Blue 1 Lake; Yellow 10 Lake INDICATIONS Based on a review of this drug by the National Academy of Sciences – National Research Council and/or other information, FDA has classified…

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ُEVRA PATCHES AS CONTRACEPTIVE: How Does it Work? The Patch is worn on the body, preventing pregnancy by delivering continuous levels of hormones (progestin and estrogen, respectively) into the bloodstream through the skin. Following this process, the Patch works the same way that pills do: by preventing ovulation. This means that the ovary does not release an egg to be fertilized. It also thickens the cervical mucus, which makes it more difficult for sperm to enter the uterus, and it changes the endometrium, which is the mucus membrane that lines the uterus, to reduce the chance of implantation.. It is important to know that you will be exposed to about 60% more estrogen if you use ORTHO EVRA® than if you use a typical birth control pill containing 35 micrograms of estrogen. In general, increased estrogen may increase the risk of side effects. The risk of venous thromboembolic events (blood clots in the legs and/or the lungs) may be increased with ORTHO EVRA® use compared with use of birth control pills. Studies examined the risk of these serious blood clots in women who used either ORTHO EVRA® or birth control pills containing one of two progestins (levonorgestrel or norgestimate) and…

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AMOXIL

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  ® (amoxicillin) Capsules, Tablets, Chewable Tablets, and Powder for Oral Suspension To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of AMOXIL (amoxicillin) and other antibacterial drugs, AMOXIL should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. DRUG DESCRIPTION What are the possible side effects of amoxicillin (Amoxil, Amoxil Pediatric Drops, Moxatag, Trimox)? Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects: fever, sore throat, and headache with a severe blistering, peeling, and red skin rash; nausea, stomach pain, low fever, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or… Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Amoxil » Formulations of AMOXIL contain amoxicillin, a semisynthetic antibiotic, an analog of ampicillin, with a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Chemically, it is (2S,5R,6R)-6-[(R)-(-)-2-amino-2-(p­hydroxyphenyl)acetamido]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid trihydrate. It may be represented structurally as:   The amoxicillin molecular formula is C16H19N3O5S• 3H2O, and the molecular weight is…

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ZYRTEC®

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(cetirizine hydrochloride) Tablets, Chewable Tablets and Syrup Now available Over-The-Counter (OTC); No prescription needed. DRUG DESCRIPTION What are the possible side effects of cetirizine (All Day Allergy, All Day Allergy Children’s, Indoor/Outdoor Allergy Relief, Zyrtec, Zyrtec Hives)? Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop using this medication and call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects: fast, pounding, or uneven heartbeat; weakness, tremors (uncontrolled shaking), or sleep problems (insomnia); severe… Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Zyrtec » Cetirizine hydrochloride, the active component of ZYRTEC® tablets and syrup, is an orally active and selective H1-receptor antagonist. The chemical name is (±) – [2- [4- [ (4-chlorophenyl)phenylmethyl] -1- piperazinyl] ethoxy]acetic acid, dihydrochloride. Cetirizine hydrochloride is a racemic compound with an empirical formula of C21H25ClN2O3•2HCl. The molecular weight is 461.82 and the chemical structure is shown below: Cetirizine hydrochloride is a white, crystalline powder and is water soluble. ZYRTEC tablets are formulated as white, film-coated, rounded-off rectangular shaped tablets for oral administration and are available in 5 and 10 mg strengths. Inactive ingredients…

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ZYPREXA®

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(olanzapine) Tablet for Oral use ZYPREXA ZYDIS (olanzapine) Tablet, Orally Disintegrating for Oral use ZYPREXA IntraMuscular (olanzapine) Injection, Powder, For Solution for Intramuscular use INCREASED MORTALITY IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA-RELATED PSYCHOSIS Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Analyses of seventeen placebo-controlled trials (modal duration of 10 weeks), largely in patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs, revealed a risk of death in drug-treated patients of between 1.6 to 1.7 times the risk of death in placebo-treated patients. Over the course of a typical 10-week controlled trial, the rate of death in drug-treated patients was about 4.5%, compared to a rate of about 2.6% in the placebo group. Although the causes of death were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g., pneumonia) in nature. Observational studies suggest that, similar to atypical antipsychotic drugs, treatment with conventional antipsychotic drugs may increase mortality. The extent to which the findings of increased mortality in observational studies may be attributed to the antipsychotic drug as opposed to some characteristic(s) of the patients is not clear. ZYPREXA (olanzapine) is not approved for the treatment of patients…

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