The National Institute of Health was the first federal agency to assume regulatory responsibility in the United States. The Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee of the NIH published guidelines for working with recombinant DNA and recombinant organisms in the laboratory. Nowadays, the agencies that are responsible for the biotechnology regulation are: US Department of Agriculture (USDA) that regulates plant pests and medical preparation from living organisms, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that regulates pesticides and herbicides, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which ensures that the food and drug products are safe and effective 
In 1988, after prompting from the United States Congress, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (National Institutes of Health) instituted a funding mechanism for biotechnology training. Universities nationwide compete for these funds to establish Biotechnology Training Programs (BTPs). Each successful application is generally funded for five years then must be competitively renewed. Graduate students in turn compete for acceptance into a BTP; if accepted then stipend, tuition and health insurance support is provided for two or three years during the course of their PhD thesis work. Nineteen institutions offer NIGMS supported BTPs. Biotechnology training is also offered at the undergraduate level and in community colleges.